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The reversal of pulmonary vascular remodeling through inhibition of p38 MAPK-alpha: a potential novel anti-inflammatory strategy in pulmonary hypertension.

Church AC, Martin DH, Wadsworth R, Bryson G, Fisher AJ, Welsh DJ, Peacock AJ - Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Previous in vitro studies suggest p38 MAPKα is critical in the proliferation of pulmonary artery fibroblasts, an important step in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVremod).Increased expression of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and p38 MAPKα was observed in the pulmonary vasculature from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, suggesting a role for activation of this pathway in the PVremod A reduction of IL-6 levels in serum and lung tissue was found in the drug-treated animals, suggesting a potential mechanism for this reversal in PVremod.This study suggests that the p38 MAPK and the α-isoform plays a pathogenic role in both human disease and rodent models of pulmonary hypertension potentially mediated through IL-6.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom; colinchurch@nhs.net.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

PH in 2 in vivo animal models is reversed by the administration of SB203580, a p38 MAPKα inhibitor. A: animals were exposed to a hypobaric hypoxic environment for 2 wk and then p38 MAPK inhibition was commenced. Hemodynamics and RVSP were measured after 4 wk. Data represent mean values ± SE. Total animals n = 5–6 per group. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001, for normal relative to all other conditions. B: hearts were isolated form the animals and the RV dissected out from the LV and septum. The ventricles were dry blotted and then weighed, and the ratio was calculated. Values are means ± SE; n = 6–7. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.005. C: hematocrit ratio. D: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin and the vessels <80 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as completely, partially, or nonmuscularized. Groups analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. E: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin and the vessels <100 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as muscularized or nonmuscularized and the percentage of muscularized vessels calculated. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 7 animals. ****P < 0.0001; ■P < 0.05 for hypoxic drug-treated vs. day 14 hypoxic control. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. F and G: animals were injected with MCT and after 2 wk p38 MAPK inhibition was commenced with daily injections. Hemodynamics and RVH were measured after 4 wk. Data represent mean values ± SE. Total animals n = 6–7 per group. *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001, for F. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, for G. H: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin, and the vessels <80 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as completely, partially or nonmuscularized. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001. I: lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin, and the vessels <100 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as muscularized or nonmuscularized, and the percentage of muscularized vessels was calculated. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. ****P < 0.0001; ■P < 0.05 for hypoxic drug-treated vs. day 14 MCT control.
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Figure 4: PH in 2 in vivo animal models is reversed by the administration of SB203580, a p38 MAPKα inhibitor. A: animals were exposed to a hypobaric hypoxic environment for 2 wk and then p38 MAPK inhibition was commenced. Hemodynamics and RVSP were measured after 4 wk. Data represent mean values ± SE. Total animals n = 5–6 per group. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001, for normal relative to all other conditions. B: hearts were isolated form the animals and the RV dissected out from the LV and septum. The ventricles were dry blotted and then weighed, and the ratio was calculated. Values are means ± SE; n = 6–7. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.005. C: hematocrit ratio. D: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin and the vessels <80 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as completely, partially, or nonmuscularized. Groups analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. E: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin and the vessels <100 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as muscularized or nonmuscularized and the percentage of muscularized vessels calculated. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 7 animals. ****P < 0.0001; ■P < 0.05 for hypoxic drug-treated vs. day 14 hypoxic control. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. F and G: animals were injected with MCT and after 2 wk p38 MAPK inhibition was commenced with daily injections. Hemodynamics and RVH were measured after 4 wk. Data represent mean values ± SE. Total animals n = 6–7 per group. *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001, for F. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, for G. H: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin, and the vessels <80 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as completely, partially or nonmuscularized. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001. I: lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin, and the vessels <100 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as muscularized or nonmuscularized, and the percentage of muscularized vessels was calculated. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. ****P < 0.0001; ■P < 0.05 for hypoxic drug-treated vs. day 14 MCT control.

Mentions: Animals were exposed to hypoxia for a period of 2 wk and then treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of SB203580 or vehicle for a further 2 wk while remaining in hypoxia. There was a significant reduction in the RVSP in the drug-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated group at 4 wk and control hypoxic animals after 2 wk (Fig. 4A), with almost full reversal to that of normal animals.


The reversal of pulmonary vascular remodeling through inhibition of p38 MAPK-alpha: a potential novel anti-inflammatory strategy in pulmonary hypertension.

Church AC, Martin DH, Wadsworth R, Bryson G, Fisher AJ, Welsh DJ, Peacock AJ - Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2015)

PH in 2 in vivo animal models is reversed by the administration of SB203580, a p38 MAPKα inhibitor. A: animals were exposed to a hypobaric hypoxic environment for 2 wk and then p38 MAPK inhibition was commenced. Hemodynamics and RVSP were measured after 4 wk. Data represent mean values ± SE. Total animals n = 5–6 per group. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001, for normal relative to all other conditions. B: hearts were isolated form the animals and the RV dissected out from the LV and septum. The ventricles were dry blotted and then weighed, and the ratio was calculated. Values are means ± SE; n = 6–7. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.005. C: hematocrit ratio. D: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin and the vessels <80 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as completely, partially, or nonmuscularized. Groups analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. E: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin and the vessels <100 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as muscularized or nonmuscularized and the percentage of muscularized vessels calculated. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 7 animals. ****P < 0.0001; ■P < 0.05 for hypoxic drug-treated vs. day 14 hypoxic control. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. F and G: animals were injected with MCT and after 2 wk p38 MAPK inhibition was commenced with daily injections. Hemodynamics and RVH were measured after 4 wk. Data represent mean values ± SE. Total animals n = 6–7 per group. *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001, for F. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, for G. H: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin, and the vessels <80 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as completely, partially or nonmuscularized. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001. I: lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin, and the vessels <100 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as muscularized or nonmuscularized, and the percentage of muscularized vessels was calculated. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. ****P < 0.0001; ■P < 0.05 for hypoxic drug-treated vs. day 14 MCT control.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 4: PH in 2 in vivo animal models is reversed by the administration of SB203580, a p38 MAPKα inhibitor. A: animals were exposed to a hypobaric hypoxic environment for 2 wk and then p38 MAPK inhibition was commenced. Hemodynamics and RVSP were measured after 4 wk. Data represent mean values ± SE. Total animals n = 5–6 per group. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001, for normal relative to all other conditions. B: hearts were isolated form the animals and the RV dissected out from the LV and septum. The ventricles were dry blotted and then weighed, and the ratio was calculated. Values are means ± SE; n = 6–7. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.005. C: hematocrit ratio. D: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin and the vessels <80 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as completely, partially, or nonmuscularized. Groups analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. E: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin and the vessels <100 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as muscularized or nonmuscularized and the percentage of muscularized vessels calculated. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 7 animals. ****P < 0.0001; ■P < 0.05 for hypoxic drug-treated vs. day 14 hypoxic control. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. F and G: animals were injected with MCT and after 2 wk p38 MAPK inhibition was commenced with daily injections. Hemodynamics and RVH were measured after 4 wk. Data represent mean values ± SE. Total animals n = 6–7 per group. *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001, for F. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, for G. H: the lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin, and the vessels <80 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as completely, partially or nonmuscularized. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001. I: lungs were removed after experiment and sections (5 mm) cut. These were stained for α-smooth muscle actin, and the vessels <100 mm were analyzed for degree of muscularization. Five to 10 random fields (×40) were analyzed with 3 slides per animal. The vessels were categorized as muscularized or nonmuscularized, and the percentage of muscularized vessels was calculated. Groups were analyzed by ANOVA for overall change with posttest analysis; n = 6 animals. ****P < 0.0001; ■P < 0.05 for hypoxic drug-treated vs. day 14 MCT control.
Mentions: Animals were exposed to hypoxia for a period of 2 wk and then treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of SB203580 or vehicle for a further 2 wk while remaining in hypoxia. There was a significant reduction in the RVSP in the drug-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated group at 4 wk and control hypoxic animals after 2 wk (Fig. 4A), with almost full reversal to that of normal animals.

Bottom Line: Previous in vitro studies suggest p38 MAPKα is critical in the proliferation of pulmonary artery fibroblasts, an important step in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVremod).Increased expression of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and p38 MAPKα was observed in the pulmonary vasculature from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, suggesting a role for activation of this pathway in the PVremod A reduction of IL-6 levels in serum and lung tissue was found in the drug-treated animals, suggesting a potential mechanism for this reversal in PVremod.This study suggests that the p38 MAPK and the α-isoform plays a pathogenic role in both human disease and rodent models of pulmonary hypertension potentially mediated through IL-6.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom; colinchurch@nhs.net.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus