A database of virtual healthy subjects to assess the accuracy of foot-to-foot pulse wave velocities for estimation of aortic stiffness.
Bottom Line: Our numerical results confirm clinical observations: 1) carotid-femoral PWV is a good indicator of aortic stiffness and correlates well with aortic PWV; 2) brachial-ankle PWV overestimates aortic PWV and is related to the stiffness and geometry of both elastic and muscular arteries; and 3) muscular PWV (carotid-radial, femoral-ankle) does not capture the stiffening of the aorta and should therefore not be used as a surrogate for aortic stiffness.In addition, our analysis highlights that the foot-to-foot PWV algorithm is sensitive to the presence of reflected waves in late diastole, which introduce errors in the PWV estimates.In this study, we have created a database of virtual healthy subjects, which can be used to assess theoretically the efficiency of physiological indexes based on pulse wave analysis.
Affiliation: Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, St. Thomas' Hospital, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; and firstname.lastname@example.org.Show MeSH
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Mentions: We used a nonlinear 1D model of blood flow in the 55 larger arteries of the human systemic circulation (4) (see box “Numerical model” in Fig. 1). Each artery of the network is characterized by its diameter D, length L, and arterial wall stiffness β. The arterial wall is assumed to be a thin elastic membrane. The peripheral branches of the 1D model are coupled to 0D three-element RCR Windkessel models that represent the resistive and compliant effects of the distal networks (arterioles and capillaries); each Windkessel is composed of two resistances (R = R1 + R2) and a compliance (C). At the aortic root, the flow Qin measured in vivo in a healthy subject is prescribed as the inflow boundary condition in a reflective way (see Fig. A1 of appendix). Further details on the model and its parameters are displayed in the appendix.
Affiliation: Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, St. Thomas' Hospital, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; and email@example.com.