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Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids.

Hauck AL, Novais J, Grift TE, Bohn MO - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance.The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits.Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, 1102 S. Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 USA.

ABSTRACT
The mature root system is a vital plant organ, which is critical to plant performance. Commercial maize (Zea mays L.) breeding has resulted in a steady increase in plant performance over time, along with noticeable changes in above ground vegetative traits, but the corresponding changes in the root system are not presently known. In this study, roughly 2500 core root systems from field trials of a set of 10 diverse elite inbreds formerly protected by Plant Variety Protection plus B73 and Mo17 and the 66 diallel intercrosses among them were evaluated for root traits using high throughput image-based phenotyping. Overall root architecture was modeled by root angle (RA) and stem diameter (SD), while root complexity, the amount of root branching, was quantified using fractal analysis to obtain values for fractal dimension (FD) and fractal abundance (FA). For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance. Mid-parent heterosis and specific combining ability was also highly significant for FD, FA, and RA, while none of the traits showed significant general combining ability. The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits. Within the inbred and hybrid generations, FD and FA were highly correlated (rp ≥ 0.74), SD was moderately correlated to FD and FA (0.69 ≥ rp ≥ 0.48), while the correlation between RA and other traits was low (0.13 ≥ rp ≥ -0.40). Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently. A more comprehensive understanding of the maize root system and the way it interacts with the environment will be useful for defining adaptation to nutrient acquisition and tolerance to stress from drought and high plant densities, critical factors in the yield gains of modern hybrids.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hierarchical cluster analysis of 66 F1 hybrids based on Euclidian phenotypic distances. The heat map represents performance of each hybrid within each sub cluster for maturity adjusted agronomic traits (EHT ear height, PHT plant height, GY grain yield, STG stay green) and root characteristics (FA fractal abundance, FD fractal dimension, RA root angle and SD stem diameter).
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Fig3: Hierarchical cluster analysis of 66 F1 hybrids based on Euclidian phenotypic distances. The heat map represents performance of each hybrid within each sub cluster for maturity adjusted agronomic traits (EHT ear height, PHT plant height, GY grain yield, STG stay green) and root characteristics (FA fractal abundance, FD fractal dimension, RA root angle and SD stem diameter).

Mentions: Root and shoot phenotypes were collected from separate experimental trials grown in 2007 and 2010, then combined into individual estimates for each hybrid as least square means. Principle components and loadings from the correlation matrix of root fractal dimension, fractal abundance, angle, stem diameter, ear height, plant height, stay green score, and five ear samples of grain weight for the 66 experimental hybrids tested are presented in Table 6. The first two components explain 86% of the variation. Based on the loadings, staygreen and root angle are distinguished from height, fractal, stem width, and grain yield traits by component one, while component two primarily contrasts stalk diameter with grain yield and root angle. These contrasts are evident in the three major groups of roughly equal size that result from hierarchical cluster analysis of the F1 phenotypes based on Euclidian phenotypic distances (Fig. 3). Ten half-sibs of LH1 cluster together and tend to have wider root angles, above average staygreen, and below average height and root complexity. Similarly, another cluster containing nine B73 half sibs have below average root angle and above average height and root complexity traits. It is worth noting that there is no obvious association with the estimates of vegetative phenotypes and grain yield. In this set of material, fractal abundance, fractal dimension, stem diameter, tended to increase with plant height, ear height, and grain yield, while entries with lower values for these traits had wider roots and stayed green longer and were related to LH1.Table 6


Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids.

Hauck AL, Novais J, Grift TE, Bohn MO - Springerplus (2015)

Hierarchical cluster analysis of 66 F1 hybrids based on Euclidian phenotypic distances. The heat map represents performance of each hybrid within each sub cluster for maturity adjusted agronomic traits (EHT ear height, PHT plant height, GY grain yield, STG stay green) and root characteristics (FA fractal abundance, FD fractal dimension, RA root angle and SD stem diameter).
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4537857&req=5

Fig3: Hierarchical cluster analysis of 66 F1 hybrids based on Euclidian phenotypic distances. The heat map represents performance of each hybrid within each sub cluster for maturity adjusted agronomic traits (EHT ear height, PHT plant height, GY grain yield, STG stay green) and root characteristics (FA fractal abundance, FD fractal dimension, RA root angle and SD stem diameter).
Mentions: Root and shoot phenotypes were collected from separate experimental trials grown in 2007 and 2010, then combined into individual estimates for each hybrid as least square means. Principle components and loadings from the correlation matrix of root fractal dimension, fractal abundance, angle, stem diameter, ear height, plant height, stay green score, and five ear samples of grain weight for the 66 experimental hybrids tested are presented in Table 6. The first two components explain 86% of the variation. Based on the loadings, staygreen and root angle are distinguished from height, fractal, stem width, and grain yield traits by component one, while component two primarily contrasts stalk diameter with grain yield and root angle. These contrasts are evident in the three major groups of roughly equal size that result from hierarchical cluster analysis of the F1 phenotypes based on Euclidian phenotypic distances (Fig. 3). Ten half-sibs of LH1 cluster together and tend to have wider root angles, above average staygreen, and below average height and root complexity. Similarly, another cluster containing nine B73 half sibs have below average root angle and above average height and root complexity traits. It is worth noting that there is no obvious association with the estimates of vegetative phenotypes and grain yield. In this set of material, fractal abundance, fractal dimension, stem diameter, tended to increase with plant height, ear height, and grain yield, while entries with lower values for these traits had wider roots and stayed green longer and were related to LH1.Table 6

Bottom Line: For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance.The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits.Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, 1102 S. Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 USA.

ABSTRACT
The mature root system is a vital plant organ, which is critical to plant performance. Commercial maize (Zea mays L.) breeding has resulted in a steady increase in plant performance over time, along with noticeable changes in above ground vegetative traits, but the corresponding changes in the root system are not presently known. In this study, roughly 2500 core root systems from field trials of a set of 10 diverse elite inbreds formerly protected by Plant Variety Protection plus B73 and Mo17 and the 66 diallel intercrosses among them were evaluated for root traits using high throughput image-based phenotyping. Overall root architecture was modeled by root angle (RA) and stem diameter (SD), while root complexity, the amount of root branching, was quantified using fractal analysis to obtain values for fractal dimension (FD) and fractal abundance (FA). For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance. Mid-parent heterosis and specific combining ability was also highly significant for FD, FA, and RA, while none of the traits showed significant general combining ability. The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits. Within the inbred and hybrid generations, FD and FA were highly correlated (rp ≥ 0.74), SD was moderately correlated to FD and FA (0.69 ≥ rp ≥ 0.48), while the correlation between RA and other traits was low (0.13 ≥ rp ≥ -0.40). Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently. A more comprehensive understanding of the maize root system and the way it interacts with the environment will be useful for defining adaptation to nutrient acquisition and tolerance to stress from drought and high plant densities, critical factors in the yield gains of modern hybrids.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus