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Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids.

Hauck AL, Novais J, Grift TE, Bohn MO - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance.The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits.Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, 1102 S. Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 USA.

ABSTRACT
The mature root system is a vital plant organ, which is critical to plant performance. Commercial maize (Zea mays L.) breeding has resulted in a steady increase in plant performance over time, along with noticeable changes in above ground vegetative traits, but the corresponding changes in the root system are not presently known. In this study, roughly 2500 core root systems from field trials of a set of 10 diverse elite inbreds formerly protected by Plant Variety Protection plus B73 and Mo17 and the 66 diallel intercrosses among them were evaluated for root traits using high throughput image-based phenotyping. Overall root architecture was modeled by root angle (RA) and stem diameter (SD), while root complexity, the amount of root branching, was quantified using fractal analysis to obtain values for fractal dimension (FD) and fractal abundance (FA). For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance. Mid-parent heterosis and specific combining ability was also highly significant for FD, FA, and RA, while none of the traits showed significant general combining ability. The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits. Within the inbred and hybrid generations, FD and FA were highly correlated (rp ≥ 0.74), SD was moderately correlated to FD and FA (0.69 ≥ rp ≥ 0.48), while the correlation between RA and other traits was low (0.13 ≥ rp ≥ -0.40). Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently. A more comprehensive understanding of the maize root system and the way it interacts with the environment will be useful for defining adaptation to nutrient acquisition and tolerance to stress from drought and high plant densities, critical factors in the yield gains of modern hybrids.

No MeSH data available.


Images display root samples with contrasting complexity, root angle, and stalk diameter. The images have been background subtracted and gray scaled.
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Fig1: Images display root samples with contrasting complexity, root angle, and stalk diameter. The images have been background subtracted and gray scaled.

Mentions: Root cores (approximately 0.3 m3) of five consecutive plants within a plot were dug out and transported to the Agricultural Engineering Farm of the University of Illinois for cleaning. Processed roots were then phenotyped with a custom designed imaging system comprised of a cabinet box with photographic lighting, a light diffusing screen, side view and top view cameras, sample rotation device, and network connection to a desktop computer (Corn Root Imaging Box, CRIB). Details on the imaging system, image processing, image analysis, and control via MatLab® code can be found in Grift et al. (2011). Briefly, the stalk diameter (SD) is measured as the average width, in pixels, of the stalk portion of each of four horizontal side images per sample. Root Angle (RA) was calculated from the same images as the angle of the root cone (Fig. 1). Sample estimates of SD and RA are averages of four perspectives of the root core that differ by 90 degree rotations of the root sample along the stem axis.Fig. 1


Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids.

Hauck AL, Novais J, Grift TE, Bohn MO - Springerplus (2015)

Images display root samples with contrasting complexity, root angle, and stalk diameter. The images have been background subtracted and gray scaled.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4537857&req=5

Fig1: Images display root samples with contrasting complexity, root angle, and stalk diameter. The images have been background subtracted and gray scaled.
Mentions: Root cores (approximately 0.3 m3) of five consecutive plants within a plot were dug out and transported to the Agricultural Engineering Farm of the University of Illinois for cleaning. Processed roots were then phenotyped with a custom designed imaging system comprised of a cabinet box with photographic lighting, a light diffusing screen, side view and top view cameras, sample rotation device, and network connection to a desktop computer (Corn Root Imaging Box, CRIB). Details on the imaging system, image processing, image analysis, and control via MatLab® code can be found in Grift et al. (2011). Briefly, the stalk diameter (SD) is measured as the average width, in pixels, of the stalk portion of each of four horizontal side images per sample. Root Angle (RA) was calculated from the same images as the angle of the root cone (Fig. 1). Sample estimates of SD and RA are averages of four perspectives of the root core that differ by 90 degree rotations of the root sample along the stem axis.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance.The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits.Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, 1102 S. Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 USA.

ABSTRACT
The mature root system is a vital plant organ, which is critical to plant performance. Commercial maize (Zea mays L.) breeding has resulted in a steady increase in plant performance over time, along with noticeable changes in above ground vegetative traits, but the corresponding changes in the root system are not presently known. In this study, roughly 2500 core root systems from field trials of a set of 10 diverse elite inbreds formerly protected by Plant Variety Protection plus B73 and Mo17 and the 66 diallel intercrosses among them were evaluated for root traits using high throughput image-based phenotyping. Overall root architecture was modeled by root angle (RA) and stem diameter (SD), while root complexity, the amount of root branching, was quantified using fractal analysis to obtain values for fractal dimension (FD) and fractal abundance (FA). For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance. Mid-parent heterosis and specific combining ability was also highly significant for FD, FA, and RA, while none of the traits showed significant general combining ability. The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits. Within the inbred and hybrid generations, FD and FA were highly correlated (rp ≥ 0.74), SD was moderately correlated to FD and FA (0.69 ≥ rp ≥ 0.48), while the correlation between RA and other traits was low (0.13 ≥ rp ≥ -0.40). Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently. A more comprehensive understanding of the maize root system and the way it interacts with the environment will be useful for defining adaptation to nutrient acquisition and tolerance to stress from drought and high plant densities, critical factors in the yield gains of modern hybrids.

No MeSH data available.