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Hematopoietic Stem and Immune Cells in Chronic HIV Infection.

Zhang J, Crumpacker C - Stem Cells Int (2015)

Bottom Line: A single HSC can reconstitute the entire blood system via self-renewal, differentiation into all lineages of blood cells, and replenishment of cells lost due to attrition or disease in a person's lifetime.Although all blood and immune cells derive from HSC, immune cells, specifically immune memory cells, have the properties of HSC on self-renewal and differentiation into lineage effector cells responding to the invading pathogens.Here, we state our point of view on the role of blood stem and progenitor cell in chronic HIV infection, with a focus on memory CD4 T-cell in the context of HIV/AIDS eradication and cure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

ABSTRACT
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) belongs to multipotent adult somatic stem cells. A single HSC can reconstitute the entire blood system via self-renewal, differentiation into all lineages of blood cells, and replenishment of cells lost due to attrition or disease in a person's lifetime. Although all blood and immune cells derive from HSC, immune cells, specifically immune memory cells, have the properties of HSC on self-renewal and differentiation into lineage effector cells responding to the invading pathogens. Moreover, the interplay between immune memory cell and viral pathogen determines the course of a viral infection. Here, we state our point of view on the role of blood stem and progenitor cell in chronic HIV infection, with a focus on memory CD4 T-cell in the context of HIV/AIDS eradication and cure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A trinity of cure by CD4 T-cell turnover. P21, cytokine, and immunotherapy can affect all three processes indicated by A, B, and C. Through cell renewal and turnover, one can regulate CD4 T-cell pool size, reprogram T-cell immune memory repertoire, and modulate immune activation and function thereby to reconstitute patient immunity towards an HIV cure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4537765&req=5

fig1: A trinity of cure by CD4 T-cell turnover. P21, cytokine, and immunotherapy can affect all three processes indicated by A, B, and C. Through cell renewal and turnover, one can regulate CD4 T-cell pool size, reprogram T-cell immune memory repertoire, and modulate immune activation and function thereby to reconstitute patient immunity towards an HIV cure.

Mentions: The hectic clonal expansion of memory CD4 T-cells in HIV infection is a double-edged sword in both AIDS pathology and cure, which not only allows cells to be killed by HIV but also allows cells to die evil via pyroptosis, in sharp contrast to the programmed cell death of immune replenishment via apoptosis (Figure 1) [10, 23, 41–43, 73–79]. How to utilize anti-inflammatory drug or immunotherapy to reprogram memory CD4 T-cell function whereby to reconstitute patient immunity is an imperative task in both the development of AIDS vaccine and cure. Additionally, to elucidate the molecular effects of anti-inflammatory drug and therapy on the function of memory CD4 T-cell, specifically the organelles such as apoptotic body and exosome, will open an avenue to manufacture new immunotherapy drugs and remedies, which are applied not only to the cure of AIDS but also to the other immune diseases such as cancer.


Hematopoietic Stem and Immune Cells in Chronic HIV Infection.

Zhang J, Crumpacker C - Stem Cells Int (2015)

A trinity of cure by CD4 T-cell turnover. P21, cytokine, and immunotherapy can affect all three processes indicated by A, B, and C. Through cell renewal and turnover, one can regulate CD4 T-cell pool size, reprogram T-cell immune memory repertoire, and modulate immune activation and function thereby to reconstitute patient immunity towards an HIV cure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4537765&req=5

fig1: A trinity of cure by CD4 T-cell turnover. P21, cytokine, and immunotherapy can affect all three processes indicated by A, B, and C. Through cell renewal and turnover, one can regulate CD4 T-cell pool size, reprogram T-cell immune memory repertoire, and modulate immune activation and function thereby to reconstitute patient immunity towards an HIV cure.
Mentions: The hectic clonal expansion of memory CD4 T-cells in HIV infection is a double-edged sword in both AIDS pathology and cure, which not only allows cells to be killed by HIV but also allows cells to die evil via pyroptosis, in sharp contrast to the programmed cell death of immune replenishment via apoptosis (Figure 1) [10, 23, 41–43, 73–79]. How to utilize anti-inflammatory drug or immunotherapy to reprogram memory CD4 T-cell function whereby to reconstitute patient immunity is an imperative task in both the development of AIDS vaccine and cure. Additionally, to elucidate the molecular effects of anti-inflammatory drug and therapy on the function of memory CD4 T-cell, specifically the organelles such as apoptotic body and exosome, will open an avenue to manufacture new immunotherapy drugs and remedies, which are applied not only to the cure of AIDS but also to the other immune diseases such as cancer.

Bottom Line: A single HSC can reconstitute the entire blood system via self-renewal, differentiation into all lineages of blood cells, and replenishment of cells lost due to attrition or disease in a person's lifetime.Although all blood and immune cells derive from HSC, immune cells, specifically immune memory cells, have the properties of HSC on self-renewal and differentiation into lineage effector cells responding to the invading pathogens.Here, we state our point of view on the role of blood stem and progenitor cell in chronic HIV infection, with a focus on memory CD4 T-cell in the context of HIV/AIDS eradication and cure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

ABSTRACT
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) belongs to multipotent adult somatic stem cells. A single HSC can reconstitute the entire blood system via self-renewal, differentiation into all lineages of blood cells, and replenishment of cells lost due to attrition or disease in a person's lifetime. Although all blood and immune cells derive from HSC, immune cells, specifically immune memory cells, have the properties of HSC on self-renewal and differentiation into lineage effector cells responding to the invading pathogens. Moreover, the interplay between immune memory cell and viral pathogen determines the course of a viral infection. Here, we state our point of view on the role of blood stem and progenitor cell in chronic HIV infection, with a focus on memory CD4 T-cell in the context of HIV/AIDS eradication and cure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus