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The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid Modulates Inflammatory Mediator Release in Human Alveolar Cells Exposed to Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of ARDS Patients.

Cotogni P, Trombetta A, Muzio G, Maggiora M, Canuto RA - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The proinflammatory cytokine release was reduced by the 1 : 2 ratio (P < 0.01 to <0.001) but was increased by the 1 : 7 ratio (P < 0.01).The 1 : 2 ratio reduced COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.001) as well as NF-κB translocation into the nucleus (P < 0.01), while it increased activation of PPARγ and IL-10 release (P < 0.001).Conclusion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Department of Medicine, S. Giovanni Battista Hospital, University of Turin, Via A.M. Dogliotti 14, 10126 Turin, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated whether the 1 : 2 ω-3/ω-6 ratio may reduce proinflammatory response in human alveolar cells (A549) exposed to an ex vivo inflammatory stimulus (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients). Methods. We exposed A549 cells to the BALF collected from 12 ARDS patients. After 18 hours, fatty acids (FA) were added as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ω-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, ω-6) in two ratios (1 : 2 or 1 : 7). 24 hours later, in culture supernatants were evaluated cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGE3) release. The FA percentage content in A549 membrane phospholipids, content of COX-2, level of PPARγ, and NF-κB binding activity were determined.

Results: The 1 : 2 DHA/AA ratio reversed the baseline predominance of ω-6 over ω-3 in the cell membranes (P < 0.001). The proinflammatory cytokine release was reduced by the 1 : 2 ratio (P < 0.01 to <0.001) but was increased by the 1 : 7 ratio (P < 0.01). The 1 : 2 ratio reduced COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.001) as well as NF-κB translocation into the nucleus (P < 0.01), while it increased activation of PPARγ and IL-10 release (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study demonstrated that shifting the FA supply from ω-6 to ω-3 decreased proinflammatory mediator release in human alveolar cells exposed to BALF of ARDS patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

BALF cytokine pattern in ARDS. (a) IL-1β and TNF-α proinflammatory cytokine content in BALF collected from pulmonary (ARDSp, white bars) and extrapulmonary (ARDSexp, black bars) ARDS patients. (b) IL-6 and IL-8 cytokine content in BALF collected from pulmonary (ARDSp, white bars) and extrapulmonary (ARDSexp, black bars) ARDS patients. The results are expressed as picograms (pg) or nanograms (ng) of cytokines per mL as indicated. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation of 12 independent determinations (n = 7 ARDSp and n = 5 ARDSexp). BALF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; IL, interleukin; TNF, tumor necrosis factor. *P < 0.05 ARDSp versus ARDSexp. **P < 0.01 ARDSp versus ARDSexp. ***P < 0.001 ARDSp versus ARDSexp.
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fig1: BALF cytokine pattern in ARDS. (a) IL-1β and TNF-α proinflammatory cytokine content in BALF collected from pulmonary (ARDSp, white bars) and extrapulmonary (ARDSexp, black bars) ARDS patients. (b) IL-6 and IL-8 cytokine content in BALF collected from pulmonary (ARDSp, white bars) and extrapulmonary (ARDSexp, black bars) ARDS patients. The results are expressed as picograms (pg) or nanograms (ng) of cytokines per mL as indicated. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation of 12 independent determinations (n = 7 ARDSp and n = 5 ARDSexp). BALF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; IL, interleukin; TNF, tumor necrosis factor. *P < 0.05 ARDSp versus ARDSexp. **P < 0.01 ARDSp versus ARDSexp. ***P < 0.001 ARDSp versus ARDSexp.

Mentions: The BALF was collected from twelve adult ARDS patients (9 males and 3 females; age 56 ± 4 yrs; pneumonia n = 7 and sepsis n = 5; Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II 42 ± 18). Proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 β and TNF-α were significantly higher in primary pneumonia patients (pulmonary ARDS, ARDSp) than in patients with ARDS originating from sepsis (extrapulmonary ARDS, ARDSexp) (Figure 1(a)). This was also observed for IL-6 and, in particular, IL-8 content (Figure 1(b)).


The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid Modulates Inflammatory Mediator Release in Human Alveolar Cells Exposed to Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of ARDS Patients.

Cotogni P, Trombetta A, Muzio G, Maggiora M, Canuto RA - Biomed Res Int (2015)

BALF cytokine pattern in ARDS. (a) IL-1β and TNF-α proinflammatory cytokine content in BALF collected from pulmonary (ARDSp, white bars) and extrapulmonary (ARDSexp, black bars) ARDS patients. (b) IL-6 and IL-8 cytokine content in BALF collected from pulmonary (ARDSp, white bars) and extrapulmonary (ARDSexp, black bars) ARDS patients. The results are expressed as picograms (pg) or nanograms (ng) of cytokines per mL as indicated. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation of 12 independent determinations (n = 7 ARDSp and n = 5 ARDSexp). BALF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; IL, interleukin; TNF, tumor necrosis factor. *P < 0.05 ARDSp versus ARDSexp. **P < 0.01 ARDSp versus ARDSexp. ***P < 0.001 ARDSp versus ARDSexp.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4537738&req=5

fig1: BALF cytokine pattern in ARDS. (a) IL-1β and TNF-α proinflammatory cytokine content in BALF collected from pulmonary (ARDSp, white bars) and extrapulmonary (ARDSexp, black bars) ARDS patients. (b) IL-6 and IL-8 cytokine content in BALF collected from pulmonary (ARDSp, white bars) and extrapulmonary (ARDSexp, black bars) ARDS patients. The results are expressed as picograms (pg) or nanograms (ng) of cytokines per mL as indicated. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation of 12 independent determinations (n = 7 ARDSp and n = 5 ARDSexp). BALF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; IL, interleukin; TNF, tumor necrosis factor. *P < 0.05 ARDSp versus ARDSexp. **P < 0.01 ARDSp versus ARDSexp. ***P < 0.001 ARDSp versus ARDSexp.
Mentions: The BALF was collected from twelve adult ARDS patients (9 males and 3 females; age 56 ± 4 yrs; pneumonia n = 7 and sepsis n = 5; Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II 42 ± 18). Proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 β and TNF-α were significantly higher in primary pneumonia patients (pulmonary ARDS, ARDSp) than in patients with ARDS originating from sepsis (extrapulmonary ARDS, ARDSexp) (Figure 1(a)). This was also observed for IL-6 and, in particular, IL-8 content (Figure 1(b)).

Bottom Line: The proinflammatory cytokine release was reduced by the 1 : 2 ratio (P < 0.01 to <0.001) but was increased by the 1 : 7 ratio (P < 0.01).The 1 : 2 ratio reduced COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.001) as well as NF-κB translocation into the nucleus (P < 0.01), while it increased activation of PPARγ and IL-10 release (P < 0.001).Conclusion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Department of Medicine, S. Giovanni Battista Hospital, University of Turin, Via A.M. Dogliotti 14, 10126 Turin, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated whether the 1 : 2 ω-3/ω-6 ratio may reduce proinflammatory response in human alveolar cells (A549) exposed to an ex vivo inflammatory stimulus (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients). Methods. We exposed A549 cells to the BALF collected from 12 ARDS patients. After 18 hours, fatty acids (FA) were added as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ω-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, ω-6) in two ratios (1 : 2 or 1 : 7). 24 hours later, in culture supernatants were evaluated cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGE3) release. The FA percentage content in A549 membrane phospholipids, content of COX-2, level of PPARγ, and NF-κB binding activity were determined.

Results: The 1 : 2 DHA/AA ratio reversed the baseline predominance of ω-6 over ω-3 in the cell membranes (P < 0.001). The proinflammatory cytokine release was reduced by the 1 : 2 ratio (P < 0.01 to <0.001) but was increased by the 1 : 7 ratio (P < 0.01). The 1 : 2 ratio reduced COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.001) as well as NF-κB translocation into the nucleus (P < 0.01), while it increased activation of PPARγ and IL-10 release (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study demonstrated that shifting the FA supply from ω-6 to ω-3 decreased proinflammatory mediator release in human alveolar cells exposed to BALF of ARDS patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus