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Microbiological Analysis of Necrosols Collected from Urban Cemeteries in Poland.

Całkosiński I, Płoneczka-Janeczko K, Ostapska M, Dudek K, Gamian A, Rypuła K - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The fungi Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 51% and 6.4% of samples, respectively.Other bacterial species were in the ground cemetery relatively sparse.Sampling depth was not correlated with bacterial growth (p > 0.05), but it was correlated with several differences in microbiota composition (superficial versus deep layer).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Neurotoxicology and Environmental Diagnosis, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, 51-618 Wroclaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Decomposition of organic matter is the primary function in the soil ecosystem, which involves bacteria and fungi. Soil microbial content depends on many factors, and secondary biological and chemical contaminations change and affect environmental feedback. Little work has been done to estimate the microbiological risk for cemetery employees and visitors. The potential risk of infection for people in the cemetery is primarily associated with injury and wound contamination during performing the work. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiota of cemetery soil obtained from cemeteries and bacterial composition in selected soil layers encountered by gravediggers and cemetery caretakers. The most common bacterial pathogens were Enterococcus spp. (80.6%), Bacillus spp. (77.4%), and E. coli (45.1%). The fungi Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 51% and 6.4% of samples, respectively. Other bacterial species were in the ground cemetery relatively sparse. Sampling depth was not correlated with bacterial growth (p > 0.05), but it was correlated with several differences in microbiota composition (superficial versus deep layer).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of the cemetery in the city of Wrocław; the yellow square indicates cemeteries in the metropolitan city of Wroclaw (A–D); the cemetery in Olesnica is highlighted in blue (E).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Location of the cemetery in the city of Wrocław; the yellow square indicates cemeteries in the metropolitan city of Wroclaw (A–D); the cemetery in Olesnica is highlighted in blue (E).

Mentions: Samples were obtained from five urban necropolises: four in Wroclaw: Grabiszynski municipal cemetery: A, Osobowice municipal cemetery: B, municipal cemetery at the Bujwida Street: C, and municipal cemetery at the Kiełczowska Street: D, and one municipal cemetery in Oleśnica at the Polish Army Street: E (Figure 1). Cemeteries A–C were established in the 19th century (1881, 1867, and 1866, resp.), cemetery E has been operating since about 1926, and cemetery D, a municipal cemetery built in the postwar period, has held burials since 1996. All of these cemeteries continue to accept burials; in accordance with current Polish law [12], graves can be reused after 20 years if no person objects and the burial fee has not been paid. All cemeteries in the study sample are located in the same climate transition zone of the clearly temperate climate (dominated by oceanic influences), typical of Lower Silesia. The average yearly temperature hovers in the area of 8.5°C. The average amount of rainfall is 500–620 millimeters, with its maximum in July and minimum in February. The snow layer disappears after 45 days. Similar to west part/side of Poland, appearing winds are westerly and south-westerly.


Microbiological Analysis of Necrosols Collected from Urban Cemeteries in Poland.

Całkosiński I, Płoneczka-Janeczko K, Ostapska M, Dudek K, Gamian A, Rypuła K - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Location of the cemetery in the city of Wrocław; the yellow square indicates cemeteries in the metropolitan city of Wroclaw (A–D); the cemetery in Olesnica is highlighted in blue (E).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4537714&req=5

fig1: Location of the cemetery in the city of Wrocław; the yellow square indicates cemeteries in the metropolitan city of Wroclaw (A–D); the cemetery in Olesnica is highlighted in blue (E).
Mentions: Samples were obtained from five urban necropolises: four in Wroclaw: Grabiszynski municipal cemetery: A, Osobowice municipal cemetery: B, municipal cemetery at the Bujwida Street: C, and municipal cemetery at the Kiełczowska Street: D, and one municipal cemetery in Oleśnica at the Polish Army Street: E (Figure 1). Cemeteries A–C were established in the 19th century (1881, 1867, and 1866, resp.), cemetery E has been operating since about 1926, and cemetery D, a municipal cemetery built in the postwar period, has held burials since 1996. All of these cemeteries continue to accept burials; in accordance with current Polish law [12], graves can be reused after 20 years if no person objects and the burial fee has not been paid. All cemeteries in the study sample are located in the same climate transition zone of the clearly temperate climate (dominated by oceanic influences), typical of Lower Silesia. The average yearly temperature hovers in the area of 8.5°C. The average amount of rainfall is 500–620 millimeters, with its maximum in July and minimum in February. The snow layer disappears after 45 days. Similar to west part/side of Poland, appearing winds are westerly and south-westerly.

Bottom Line: The fungi Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 51% and 6.4% of samples, respectively.Other bacterial species were in the ground cemetery relatively sparse.Sampling depth was not correlated with bacterial growth (p > 0.05), but it was correlated with several differences in microbiota composition (superficial versus deep layer).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Neurotoxicology and Environmental Diagnosis, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, 51-618 Wroclaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Decomposition of organic matter is the primary function in the soil ecosystem, which involves bacteria and fungi. Soil microbial content depends on many factors, and secondary biological and chemical contaminations change and affect environmental feedback. Little work has been done to estimate the microbiological risk for cemetery employees and visitors. The potential risk of infection for people in the cemetery is primarily associated with injury and wound contamination during performing the work. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiota of cemetery soil obtained from cemeteries and bacterial composition in selected soil layers encountered by gravediggers and cemetery caretakers. The most common bacterial pathogens were Enterococcus spp. (80.6%), Bacillus spp. (77.4%), and E. coli (45.1%). The fungi Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 51% and 6.4% of samples, respectively. Other bacterial species were in the ground cemetery relatively sparse. Sampling depth was not correlated with bacterial growth (p > 0.05), but it was correlated with several differences in microbiota composition (superficial versus deep layer).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus