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Phylogeny and biogeography of Primula sect. Armerina: implications for plant evolution under climate change and the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Ren G, Conti E, Salamin N - BMC Evol. Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: However, their effects on dispersal, differentiation and evolution of many groups of plants are still unknown.Our results support the hypothesis that geologic and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms in the QTP area.Armerina.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolution, Biophore, University of Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland. guangpeng.ren@unil.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: The historical orogenesis and associated climatic changes of mountain areas have been suggested to partly account for the occurrence of high levels of biodiversity and endemism. However, their effects on dispersal, differentiation and evolution of many groups of plants are still unknown. In this study, we examined the detailed diversification history of Primula sect. Armerina, and used biogeographic analysis and macro-evolutionary modeling to investigate a series of different questions concerning the evolution of the geographical and ecological distribution of the species in this section.

Results: We sequenced five chloroplast and one nuclear genes for species of Primula sect. Armerina. Neither chloroplast nor nuclear trees support the monophyly of the section. The major incongruences between the two trees occur among closely related species and may be explained by hybridization. Our dating analyses based on the chloroplast dataset suggest that this section began to diverge from its relatives around 3.55 million years ago, largely coinciding with the last major uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Biogeographic analysis supports the origin of the section in the Himalayan Mountains and dispersal from the Himalayas to Northeastern QTP, Western QTP and Hengduan Mountains. Furthermore, evolutionary models of ecological niches show that the two P. fasciculata clades have significantly different climatic niche optima and rates of niche evolution, indicating niche evolution under climatic changes and further providing evidence for explaining their biogeographic patterns.

Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that geologic and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms in the QTP area. The Pliocene uplift of the QTP and following climatic changes most likely promoted both the inter- and intraspecific divergence of Primula sect. Armerina. This study also illustrates how niche evolution under climatic changes influences biogeographic patterns.

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The maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree derived from BEAST analyses of five chloroplast genes. Maximum likelihood (ML) bootstrap values and Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP) are indicated at major nodes. Bootstrap values ≥ 80 and PP ≥ 0.95 are indicated with thicker branches. Outgroup species are shown in bold
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Fig2: The maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree derived from BEAST analyses of five chloroplast genes. Maximum likelihood (ML) bootstrap values and Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP) are indicated at major nodes. Bootstrap values ≥ 80 and PP ≥ 0.95 are indicated with thicker branches. Outgroup species are shown in bold

Mentions: The maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses done on each data set resulted in congruent topologies, but discrepancies were obtained between the two types of markers. The only tetraploid species, P. egaliksensis, was included in a well-supported clade with P. mistassinica and P. farinosa in the chloroplast tree. This result is in agreement with previous studies [35, 37, 38]. The node subtending the rest of the samples of Primula sect. Armerina received very low support (posterior probability, PP 0.18, ML 6 %) in the choloroplast phylogenetic tree and the relationships between species remained partly unresolved (Fig. 2). Three main clades were inferred in the chloroplast tree. The clade involucrata (including P. involucrata, P. pamirica, P. fasciculata, P. nutans and P. tibetica) and the clade conspersa (including P. conspersa, P. gemmifera and P. zambalensis) were strongly supported in both ML and Bayesian analyses, while the clade pumilio (P. pumilio) was not well-supported by ML (74 %), but received very high posterior probabilities in the Bayesian analyses (PP 1.0). Overall, well-supported clades (PP > 0.95) in the chloroplast tree grouped sequences from the same species, except for P. fasciculata, which was separated into two groups (Fig. 2).Fig. 2


Phylogeny and biogeography of Primula sect. Armerina: implications for plant evolution under climate change and the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Ren G, Conti E, Salamin N - BMC Evol. Biol. (2015)

The maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree derived from BEAST analyses of five chloroplast genes. Maximum likelihood (ML) bootstrap values and Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP) are indicated at major nodes. Bootstrap values ≥ 80 and PP ≥ 0.95 are indicated with thicker branches. Outgroup species are shown in bold
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4537560&req=5

Fig2: The maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree derived from BEAST analyses of five chloroplast genes. Maximum likelihood (ML) bootstrap values and Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP) are indicated at major nodes. Bootstrap values ≥ 80 and PP ≥ 0.95 are indicated with thicker branches. Outgroup species are shown in bold
Mentions: The maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses done on each data set resulted in congruent topologies, but discrepancies were obtained between the two types of markers. The only tetraploid species, P. egaliksensis, was included in a well-supported clade with P. mistassinica and P. farinosa in the chloroplast tree. This result is in agreement with previous studies [35, 37, 38]. The node subtending the rest of the samples of Primula sect. Armerina received very low support (posterior probability, PP 0.18, ML 6 %) in the choloroplast phylogenetic tree and the relationships between species remained partly unresolved (Fig. 2). Three main clades were inferred in the chloroplast tree. The clade involucrata (including P. involucrata, P. pamirica, P. fasciculata, P. nutans and P. tibetica) and the clade conspersa (including P. conspersa, P. gemmifera and P. zambalensis) were strongly supported in both ML and Bayesian analyses, while the clade pumilio (P. pumilio) was not well-supported by ML (74 %), but received very high posterior probabilities in the Bayesian analyses (PP 1.0). Overall, well-supported clades (PP > 0.95) in the chloroplast tree grouped sequences from the same species, except for P. fasciculata, which was separated into two groups (Fig. 2).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: However, their effects on dispersal, differentiation and evolution of many groups of plants are still unknown.Our results support the hypothesis that geologic and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms in the QTP area.Armerina.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolution, Biophore, University of Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland. guangpeng.ren@unil.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: The historical orogenesis and associated climatic changes of mountain areas have been suggested to partly account for the occurrence of high levels of biodiversity and endemism. However, their effects on dispersal, differentiation and evolution of many groups of plants are still unknown. In this study, we examined the detailed diversification history of Primula sect. Armerina, and used biogeographic analysis and macro-evolutionary modeling to investigate a series of different questions concerning the evolution of the geographical and ecological distribution of the species in this section.

Results: We sequenced five chloroplast and one nuclear genes for species of Primula sect. Armerina. Neither chloroplast nor nuclear trees support the monophyly of the section. The major incongruences between the two trees occur among closely related species and may be explained by hybridization. Our dating analyses based on the chloroplast dataset suggest that this section began to diverge from its relatives around 3.55 million years ago, largely coinciding with the last major uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Biogeographic analysis supports the origin of the section in the Himalayan Mountains and dispersal from the Himalayas to Northeastern QTP, Western QTP and Hengduan Mountains. Furthermore, evolutionary models of ecological niches show that the two P. fasciculata clades have significantly different climatic niche optima and rates of niche evolution, indicating niche evolution under climatic changes and further providing evidence for explaining their biogeographic patterns.

Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that geologic and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms in the QTP area. The Pliocene uplift of the QTP and following climatic changes most likely promoted both the inter- and intraspecific divergence of Primula sect. Armerina. This study also illustrates how niche evolution under climatic changes influences biogeographic patterns.

Show MeSH