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Biogeography of the Phalaenopsis amabilis species complex inferred from nuclear and plastid DNAs.

Tsai CC, Chou CH, Wang HV, Ko YZ, Chiang TY, Chiang YC - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Demographic growth associated with the climatic oscillations in the Würm glacial period followed the species splits.Nevertheless, a subsequent population slowdown occurred in the late LGM due to extinction of regional populations.The reduction of suitable habitats resulted in geographic fragmenttation of the remaining taxa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Crop Improvement Division, Kaohsiung District Agricultural Improvement Station, Pingtung, 900, Taiwan. tsaicc@mail.kdais.gov.tw.

ABSTRACT

Background: Phalaenopsis is one of the important commercial orchids in the world. Members of the P. amabilis species complex represent invaluable germplasm for the breeding program. However, the phylogeny of the P. amabilis species complex is still uncertain. The Phalaenopsis amabilis species complex (Orchidaceae) consists of subspecies amabilis, moluccana, and rosenstromii of P. amabilis, as well as P. aphrodite ssp. aphrodite, P. ap. ssp. formosana, and P. sanderiana. The aims of this study were to reconstruct the phylogeny and biogeographcial patterns of the species complex using Neighbor Joining (NJ), Maxinum Parsimony (MP), Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST) and Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP) analyses based on sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 from the nuclear ribosomal DNA and the trnH-psbA spacer from the plastid DNA.

Results: A pattern of vicariance, dispersal, and vicariance + dispersal among disjunctly distributed taxa was uncovered based on RASP analysis. Although two subspecies of P. aphrodite could not be differentiated from each other in dispersal state, they were distinct from P. amabilis and P. sanderiana. Within P. amabilis, three subspecies were separated phylogenetically, in agreement with the vicariance or vicariance + dispersal scenario, with geographic subdivision along Huxley's, Wallace's and Lydekker's Lines. Molecular dating revealed such subdivisions among taxa of P. amabilis complex dating back to the late Pleistocene. Population-dynamic analyses using a Bayesian skyline plot suggested that the species complex experienced an in situ range expansion and population concentration during the late Last Glacial Maximum (LGM).

Conclusions: Taxa of the P. amabilis complex with disjunct distributions were differentiated due to vicariance or vicariance + dispersal, with events likely occurring in the late Pleistocene. Demographic growth associated with the climatic oscillations in the Würm glacial period followed the species splits. Nevertheless, a subsequent population slowdown occurred in the late LGM due to extinction of regional populations. The reduction of suitable habitats resulted in geographic fragmenttation of the remaining taxa.

No MeSH data available.


Historical biogeographical reconstruction using Lagrange on the P. amabilis species complex topology. Coloured squares indicate reconstructed ancestral ranges and the square size is proportional to the probability of the reconstructions (see Table 7). The geographic ranges of species are displayed at right. [left / right]: ‘left’ and ‘right’ are the ranges inherited by each descendant branch (in the printed tree, ‘left’ is the upper branch, and ‘right’ the lower branch). The distribution areas of extant accessions of P. amabilis species are marked in capitals A–J (A: Bantam, Java, Indonesia; B: Mentawai Is., Sumatra, Indonesia; C: Brooks Point, Palawan, the Philippines; D: Sabah, Indonesia; E: East Timor; F: Celebes, Molucca Is., Indonesia; G: Kaiser Wilhelms, New Guinea; H: Mindanao, the Philippines; I: Manila, Luzon, Fuga Is., and Calayan Is. in the Philippines; J: southern Taiwan), respectively
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Fig5: Historical biogeographical reconstruction using Lagrange on the P. amabilis species complex topology. Coloured squares indicate reconstructed ancestral ranges and the square size is proportional to the probability of the reconstructions (see Table 7). The geographic ranges of species are displayed at right. [left / right]: ‘left’ and ‘right’ are the ranges inherited by each descendant branch (in the printed tree, ‘left’ is the upper branch, and ‘right’ the lower branch). The distribution areas of extant accessions of P. amabilis species are marked in capitals A–J (A: Bantam, Java, Indonesia; B: Mentawai Is., Sumatra, Indonesia; C: Brooks Point, Palawan, the Philippines; D: Sabah, Indonesia; E: East Timor; F: Celebes, Molucca Is., Indonesia; G: Kaiser Wilhelms, New Guinea; H: Mindanao, the Philippines; I: Manila, Luzon, Fuga Is., and Calayan Is. in the Philippines; J: southern Taiwan), respectively

Mentions: To infer vicariance and dispersal events in the P. amabilis complex, ancestral ranges were obtained by RASP analysis of plastid DNA (Fig. 3). RASP detected 17 vicariance, 36 dispersal, and 7 extinction events in the whole phylogenetic demography, suggesting a complicatedbiogeographical history in which vicariance, dispersal, and vicariance + dispersal played critical roles in shaping the current distribution in P. amabilis species complex. Accordingly, the extant distributions of species and subspecies of the P. amabilis complex may have largely been shaped by vicariance events, with relatively rare events of dispersal + vicariance or dispersal. The results supported vicariance events between P. amabilis and P. aphrodite (Fig. 3), between P. amabilis and P. sanderiana, and between P. amabilis ssp. rosenstromii and ssp. moluccana/ssp. amabilis from Sabah and Palawan/P. sanderiana (Fig. 3). In contrast, the analysis of plastid DNA suggested that the extant distribution of P. aphrodite was likely shaped by dispersal (Fig. 3). The patterns of the biogeographic reconstruction executed by Lagrange are presented in Fig. 5 and Table 7. Lagrange and RASP methods created similar patterns. However, Lagrange generally estimated in terms of relative probabilities at nodes and a better range of possible ancestral areas at nodes usually inferred a favored reconstruction. The ancestral range of P. amabilis complex (node 80) was estimated to have been in the Java and southern Taiwan with 0.174 of relative probability (Fig. 5 and Table 7). Likewise, The ancestral ranges of P. aphrodite (node 76), P. amabilis (node 65), and P. sanderiana (node 60) were likely in southern Taiwan with 0.588 of relative probability, Java / New Guinea with 0.223 of relative probability, and Mindanao with 0.956 of relative probability, respectively.Fig. 5


Biogeography of the Phalaenopsis amabilis species complex inferred from nuclear and plastid DNAs.

Tsai CC, Chou CH, Wang HV, Ko YZ, Chiang TY, Chiang YC - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Historical biogeographical reconstruction using Lagrange on the P. amabilis species complex topology. Coloured squares indicate reconstructed ancestral ranges and the square size is proportional to the probability of the reconstructions (see Table 7). The geographic ranges of species are displayed at right. [left / right]: ‘left’ and ‘right’ are the ranges inherited by each descendant branch (in the printed tree, ‘left’ is the upper branch, and ‘right’ the lower branch). The distribution areas of extant accessions of P. amabilis species are marked in capitals A–J (A: Bantam, Java, Indonesia; B: Mentawai Is., Sumatra, Indonesia; C: Brooks Point, Palawan, the Philippines; D: Sabah, Indonesia; E: East Timor; F: Celebes, Molucca Is., Indonesia; G: Kaiser Wilhelms, New Guinea; H: Mindanao, the Philippines; I: Manila, Luzon, Fuga Is., and Calayan Is. in the Philippines; J: southern Taiwan), respectively
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4537552&req=5

Fig5: Historical biogeographical reconstruction using Lagrange on the P. amabilis species complex topology. Coloured squares indicate reconstructed ancestral ranges and the square size is proportional to the probability of the reconstructions (see Table 7). The geographic ranges of species are displayed at right. [left / right]: ‘left’ and ‘right’ are the ranges inherited by each descendant branch (in the printed tree, ‘left’ is the upper branch, and ‘right’ the lower branch). The distribution areas of extant accessions of P. amabilis species are marked in capitals A–J (A: Bantam, Java, Indonesia; B: Mentawai Is., Sumatra, Indonesia; C: Brooks Point, Palawan, the Philippines; D: Sabah, Indonesia; E: East Timor; F: Celebes, Molucca Is., Indonesia; G: Kaiser Wilhelms, New Guinea; H: Mindanao, the Philippines; I: Manila, Luzon, Fuga Is., and Calayan Is. in the Philippines; J: southern Taiwan), respectively
Mentions: To infer vicariance and dispersal events in the P. amabilis complex, ancestral ranges were obtained by RASP analysis of plastid DNA (Fig. 3). RASP detected 17 vicariance, 36 dispersal, and 7 extinction events in the whole phylogenetic demography, suggesting a complicatedbiogeographical history in which vicariance, dispersal, and vicariance + dispersal played critical roles in shaping the current distribution in P. amabilis species complex. Accordingly, the extant distributions of species and subspecies of the P. amabilis complex may have largely been shaped by vicariance events, with relatively rare events of dispersal + vicariance or dispersal. The results supported vicariance events between P. amabilis and P. aphrodite (Fig. 3), between P. amabilis and P. sanderiana, and between P. amabilis ssp. rosenstromii and ssp. moluccana/ssp. amabilis from Sabah and Palawan/P. sanderiana (Fig. 3). In contrast, the analysis of plastid DNA suggested that the extant distribution of P. aphrodite was likely shaped by dispersal (Fig. 3). The patterns of the biogeographic reconstruction executed by Lagrange are presented in Fig. 5 and Table 7. Lagrange and RASP methods created similar patterns. However, Lagrange generally estimated in terms of relative probabilities at nodes and a better range of possible ancestral areas at nodes usually inferred a favored reconstruction. The ancestral range of P. amabilis complex (node 80) was estimated to have been in the Java and southern Taiwan with 0.174 of relative probability (Fig. 5 and Table 7). Likewise, The ancestral ranges of P. aphrodite (node 76), P. amabilis (node 65), and P. sanderiana (node 60) were likely in southern Taiwan with 0.588 of relative probability, Java / New Guinea with 0.223 of relative probability, and Mindanao with 0.956 of relative probability, respectively.Fig. 5

Bottom Line: Demographic growth associated with the climatic oscillations in the Würm glacial period followed the species splits.Nevertheless, a subsequent population slowdown occurred in the late LGM due to extinction of regional populations.The reduction of suitable habitats resulted in geographic fragmenttation of the remaining taxa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Crop Improvement Division, Kaohsiung District Agricultural Improvement Station, Pingtung, 900, Taiwan. tsaicc@mail.kdais.gov.tw.

ABSTRACT

Background: Phalaenopsis is one of the important commercial orchids in the world. Members of the P. amabilis species complex represent invaluable germplasm for the breeding program. However, the phylogeny of the P. amabilis species complex is still uncertain. The Phalaenopsis amabilis species complex (Orchidaceae) consists of subspecies amabilis, moluccana, and rosenstromii of P. amabilis, as well as P. aphrodite ssp. aphrodite, P. ap. ssp. formosana, and P. sanderiana. The aims of this study were to reconstruct the phylogeny and biogeographcial patterns of the species complex using Neighbor Joining (NJ), Maxinum Parsimony (MP), Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST) and Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP) analyses based on sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 from the nuclear ribosomal DNA and the trnH-psbA spacer from the plastid DNA.

Results: A pattern of vicariance, dispersal, and vicariance + dispersal among disjunctly distributed taxa was uncovered based on RASP analysis. Although two subspecies of P. aphrodite could not be differentiated from each other in dispersal state, they were distinct from P. amabilis and P. sanderiana. Within P. amabilis, three subspecies were separated phylogenetically, in agreement with the vicariance or vicariance + dispersal scenario, with geographic subdivision along Huxley's, Wallace's and Lydekker's Lines. Molecular dating revealed such subdivisions among taxa of P. amabilis complex dating back to the late Pleistocene. Population-dynamic analyses using a Bayesian skyline plot suggested that the species complex experienced an in situ range expansion and population concentration during the late Last Glacial Maximum (LGM).

Conclusions: Taxa of the P. amabilis complex with disjunct distributions were differentiated due to vicariance or vicariance + dispersal, with events likely occurring in the late Pleistocene. Demographic growth associated with the climatic oscillations in the Würm glacial period followed the species splits. Nevertheless, a subsequent population slowdown occurred in the late LGM due to extinction of regional populations. The reduction of suitable habitats resulted in geographic fragmenttation of the remaining taxa.

No MeSH data available.