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Biomaterials as carrier, barrier and reactor for cell-based regenerative medicine.

Qi C, Yan X, Huang C, Melerzanov A, Du Y - Protein Cell (2015)

Bottom Line: However, challenges such as cell loss, death and immune-rejection after transplantation still persist.Biomaterials have been designed as carriers to deliver cells to desirable region for local tissue regeneration; as barriers to protect transplanted cells from host immune attack; or as reactors to stimulate host cell recruitment, homing and differentiation.With the assistance of biomaterials, improvement in treatment efficiency has been demonstrated in numerous animal models of degenerative diseases compared with routine free cell-based therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

ABSTRACT
Cell therapy has achieved tremendous success in regenerative medicine in the past several decades. However, challenges such as cell loss, death and immune-rejection after transplantation still persist. Biomaterials have been designed as carriers to deliver cells to desirable region for local tissue regeneration; as barriers to protect transplanted cells from host immune attack; or as reactors to stimulate host cell recruitment, homing and differentiation. With the assistance of biomaterials, improvement in treatment efficiency has been demonstrated in numerous animal models of degenerative diseases compared with routine free cell-based therapy. Emerging clinical applications of biomaterial assisted cell therapies further highlight their great promise in regenerative therapy and even cure for complex diseases, which have been failed to realize by conventional therapeutic approaches.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biomaterials applied as reactors for bone, skin, and cartilage regeneration. (A) Histological sections of PPF/PLGA scaffolds, polyester poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). Left, bone grown into and around PPF/PLGA scaffold. Right, bone did not grow into scaffold but grow along the external surface of the scaffold; (B) Histological scoring of longitudinal sections for bone growth around the outside of the implant (guided growth) in different scaffolds (Hedberg et al., 2005); (C and D) SMA-FP reduced in vivo wound contraction, smooth muscle actin (SMA); fusion peptide (FP) (Hinz et al. 2002). (D) Left, SMA-FP transplantation. Right, FP transplantation; (E–G) TGFβ3-collagen hydrogel promoted regeneration of the rabbit synovial joint. (E) Photograph of artificial and native synovial joint; (F) Surgical transplantation; (G) (i) Bio-scaffold prior to implantation, (ii) TGFβ3-free, (iii) TGFβ3-infused bio-scaffold after implantation for 4 months, and (iv) native cartilage; (H–K) TGFβ1 coated poly(caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold recruited mesenchymal cells for chondrogenesis (Lee et al. 2010). (Images are reproduced with the permission from Hinz et al. (2002), Hedberg et al. (2005) and Lee et al. (2010))
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Fig4: Biomaterials applied as reactors for bone, skin, and cartilage regeneration. (A) Histological sections of PPF/PLGA scaffolds, polyester poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). Left, bone grown into and around PPF/PLGA scaffold. Right, bone did not grow into scaffold but grow along the external surface of the scaffold; (B) Histological scoring of longitudinal sections for bone growth around the outside of the implant (guided growth) in different scaffolds (Hedberg et al., 2005); (C and D) SMA-FP reduced in vivo wound contraction, smooth muscle actin (SMA); fusion peptide (FP) (Hinz et al. 2002). (D) Left, SMA-FP transplantation. Right, FP transplantation; (E–G) TGFβ3-collagen hydrogel promoted regeneration of the rabbit synovial joint. (E) Photograph of artificial and native synovial joint; (F) Surgical transplantation; (G) (i) Bio-scaffold prior to implantation, (ii) TGFβ3-free, (iii) TGFβ3-infused bio-scaffold after implantation for 4 months, and (iv) native cartilage; (H–K) TGFβ1 coated poly(caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold recruited mesenchymal cells for chondrogenesis (Lee et al. 2010). (Images are reproduced with the permission from Hinz et al. (2002), Hedberg et al. (2005) and Lee et al. (2010))

Mentions: Scaffolds derived from purified ECM components (e.g. collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and fibrin) can be potentially less immunogenic with similar biochemical and structural moieties to natural ECM (Matthews et al., 2002). Promising therapeutic results have been shown by purified ECM component in tissue repair (Hubbell, 2003). Collagen is among the most widely used biomaterials in this category, and can be derived from animal tissues (e.g. skin and tendon), as well as human tissues (e.g. placenta). It can be reconstituted into solid gels via pH or temperature alterations. Cell migration can occur in collagen scaffold with a relatively large mesh size (e.g. collagen sponge) (Wolf et al., 2003) or through matrix degradation by MMPs (Hinz et al., 2002). Collagen scaffolds have been used clinically for bone (Uludag et al., 2000) and cartilage (Okamoto et al., 2003) repair (Fig. 4). Combinational use of chondroitin sulfate and collagen have been applied in skin (Butler et al., 1999) and peripheral nerves (Chamberlain et al., 2000) repair. Fibrin, a specialized ECM protein that participates in spontaneous tissue repair, has been applied in sutureless fixation of skin grafts (Currie et al., 2001). Other than natural ECM components, synthetic materials have also been applied. In a successful experiment of bone-tissue engineering, biodegradable polyurethane scaffold was transplanted to non-union fractures, which recruited MSCs and osteo-progenitor cells to heal the wound (Brown et al., 2011).Figure 4


Biomaterials as carrier, barrier and reactor for cell-based regenerative medicine.

Qi C, Yan X, Huang C, Melerzanov A, Du Y - Protein Cell (2015)

Biomaterials applied as reactors for bone, skin, and cartilage regeneration. (A) Histological sections of PPF/PLGA scaffolds, polyester poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). Left, bone grown into and around PPF/PLGA scaffold. Right, bone did not grow into scaffold but grow along the external surface of the scaffold; (B) Histological scoring of longitudinal sections for bone growth around the outside of the implant (guided growth) in different scaffolds (Hedberg et al., 2005); (C and D) SMA-FP reduced in vivo wound contraction, smooth muscle actin (SMA); fusion peptide (FP) (Hinz et al. 2002). (D) Left, SMA-FP transplantation. Right, FP transplantation; (E–G) TGFβ3-collagen hydrogel promoted regeneration of the rabbit synovial joint. (E) Photograph of artificial and native synovial joint; (F) Surgical transplantation; (G) (i) Bio-scaffold prior to implantation, (ii) TGFβ3-free, (iii) TGFβ3-infused bio-scaffold after implantation for 4 months, and (iv) native cartilage; (H–K) TGFβ1 coated poly(caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold recruited mesenchymal cells for chondrogenesis (Lee et al. 2010). (Images are reproduced with the permission from Hinz et al. (2002), Hedberg et al. (2005) and Lee et al. (2010))
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig4: Biomaterials applied as reactors for bone, skin, and cartilage regeneration. (A) Histological sections of PPF/PLGA scaffolds, polyester poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). Left, bone grown into and around PPF/PLGA scaffold. Right, bone did not grow into scaffold but grow along the external surface of the scaffold; (B) Histological scoring of longitudinal sections for bone growth around the outside of the implant (guided growth) in different scaffolds (Hedberg et al., 2005); (C and D) SMA-FP reduced in vivo wound contraction, smooth muscle actin (SMA); fusion peptide (FP) (Hinz et al. 2002). (D) Left, SMA-FP transplantation. Right, FP transplantation; (E–G) TGFβ3-collagen hydrogel promoted regeneration of the rabbit synovial joint. (E) Photograph of artificial and native synovial joint; (F) Surgical transplantation; (G) (i) Bio-scaffold prior to implantation, (ii) TGFβ3-free, (iii) TGFβ3-infused bio-scaffold after implantation for 4 months, and (iv) native cartilage; (H–K) TGFβ1 coated poly(caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold recruited mesenchymal cells for chondrogenesis (Lee et al. 2010). (Images are reproduced with the permission from Hinz et al. (2002), Hedberg et al. (2005) and Lee et al. (2010))
Mentions: Scaffolds derived from purified ECM components (e.g. collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and fibrin) can be potentially less immunogenic with similar biochemical and structural moieties to natural ECM (Matthews et al., 2002). Promising therapeutic results have been shown by purified ECM component in tissue repair (Hubbell, 2003). Collagen is among the most widely used biomaterials in this category, and can be derived from animal tissues (e.g. skin and tendon), as well as human tissues (e.g. placenta). It can be reconstituted into solid gels via pH or temperature alterations. Cell migration can occur in collagen scaffold with a relatively large mesh size (e.g. collagen sponge) (Wolf et al., 2003) or through matrix degradation by MMPs (Hinz et al., 2002). Collagen scaffolds have been used clinically for bone (Uludag et al., 2000) and cartilage (Okamoto et al., 2003) repair (Fig. 4). Combinational use of chondroitin sulfate and collagen have been applied in skin (Butler et al., 1999) and peripheral nerves (Chamberlain et al., 2000) repair. Fibrin, a specialized ECM protein that participates in spontaneous tissue repair, has been applied in sutureless fixation of skin grafts (Currie et al., 2001). Other than natural ECM components, synthetic materials have also been applied. In a successful experiment of bone-tissue engineering, biodegradable polyurethane scaffold was transplanted to non-union fractures, which recruited MSCs and osteo-progenitor cells to heal the wound (Brown et al., 2011).Figure 4

Bottom Line: However, challenges such as cell loss, death and immune-rejection after transplantation still persist.Biomaterials have been designed as carriers to deliver cells to desirable region for local tissue regeneration; as barriers to protect transplanted cells from host immune attack; or as reactors to stimulate host cell recruitment, homing and differentiation.With the assistance of biomaterials, improvement in treatment efficiency has been demonstrated in numerous animal models of degenerative diseases compared with routine free cell-based therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

ABSTRACT
Cell therapy has achieved tremendous success in regenerative medicine in the past several decades. However, challenges such as cell loss, death and immune-rejection after transplantation still persist. Biomaterials have been designed as carriers to deliver cells to desirable region for local tissue regeneration; as barriers to protect transplanted cells from host immune attack; or as reactors to stimulate host cell recruitment, homing and differentiation. With the assistance of biomaterials, improvement in treatment efficiency has been demonstrated in numerous animal models of degenerative diseases compared with routine free cell-based therapy. Emerging clinical applications of biomaterial assisted cell therapies further highlight their great promise in regenerative therapy and even cure for complex diseases, which have been failed to realize by conventional therapeutic approaches.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus