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The Neonatal Connectome During Preterm Brain Development.

van den Heuvel MP, Kersbergen KJ, de Reus MA, Keunen K, Kahn RS, Groenendaal F, de Vries LS, Benders MJ - Cereb. Cortex (2014)

Bottom Line: The human connectome is the result of an elaborate developmental trajectory.Analysis of brain development between week 30 and week 40 GA revealed clear developmental effects in neonatal connectome architecture, including a significant increase in white matter microstructure (P < 0.01), small-world topology (P < 0.01) and interhemispheric FC (P < 0.01).Taken together, we conclude that hallmark organizational structures of the human connectome are present before term birth and subject to early development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, The Netherlands.

No MeSH data available.


Comparison of the group-averaged neonatal and adult connectome. Upper panels show the structural connectivity (SC) matrices (NOS weighted) of the neonatal (left) and adult (right) group-averaged connectome. Rows and columns (i.e., nodes of the network) are ordered according to the community structure of the adult FC matrix. Lower panels show the level of positive functional coupling (functional connectivity FC) between each pair of regions in the neonatal (left) an adult connectome (right). Columns and rows (nodes) of the matrices are ordered according to module decomposition of the adult functional connectome, revealing 4 distinct functional modules, overlapping an occipital (visual), temporal (auditory), central (sensory, motor network) and the functional default mode network. Figure shows overlap between both the SC matrices of the neonatal and adult group (overlap: 81%, see Results), confirming our observations that overall SC structure is present before term equivalent birth. Furthermore, overlap between the FC matrices (overlap: 79%, see Results) suggests the presence of outlines of functional modules in the neonatal brain, albeit being in an immature state. Note that the rows and columns (i.e., nodes of the network) are ordered according to the community structure of the adult FC matrix, and thus different from the ordering used in Figure 2.
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BHU095F3: Comparison of the group-averaged neonatal and adult connectome. Upper panels show the structural connectivity (SC) matrices (NOS weighted) of the neonatal (left) and adult (right) group-averaged connectome. Rows and columns (i.e., nodes of the network) are ordered according to the community structure of the adult FC matrix. Lower panels show the level of positive functional coupling (functional connectivity FC) between each pair of regions in the neonatal (left) an adult connectome (right). Columns and rows (nodes) of the matrices are ordered according to module decomposition of the adult functional connectome, revealing 4 distinct functional modules, overlapping an occipital (visual), temporal (auditory), central (sensory, motor network) and the functional default mode network. Figure shows overlap between both the SC matrices of the neonatal and adult group (overlap: 81%, see Results), confirming our observations that overall SC structure is present before term equivalent birth. Furthermore, overlap between the FC matrices (overlap: 79%, see Results) suggests the presence of outlines of functional modules in the neonatal brain, albeit being in an immature state. Note that the rows and columns (i.e., nodes of the network) are ordered according to the community structure of the adult FC matrix, and thus different from the ordering used in Figure 2.

Mentions: To examine whether particular structures of the adult human connectome are already present at (term equivalent) birth, the organization of the neonate's connectivity circuitry was compared with the organization of the connectome of a group of adults. An adult connectome was reconstructed based on DWI data from a group of healthy adult participants (see Materials and Methods for details). Figure 3a shows a side-by-side comparison of the neonatal connectome and a group-averaged adult connectome, illustrating a high level of overlap between the network of the neonatal brain (left panel) and that of the adult brain (right panel) on SC. For visual comparison, regions of the neonate and adult template are placed into the same arrangement to allow a visual comparison between the 2 networks (see Materials and Methods), showing clear overlap between the structural of the neonatal and adult connectome. Quantitative comparison of the group-averages structural neonatal and adult connectome (comparing the existence and nonexistence of each of the entry in the matrix between the group-averaged neonatal and adult structural connectivity matrix) revealed 84.6% overlap between the 2 matrices (P < 0.001, 1000 permutations). Importantly, focusing on the intrahemispheric connections in the neonatal and adult connectome (i.e., cortico-cortical connections within a single hemisphere, not taking into account interhemispheric corpus callosal tracts) also showed a high level of overlap (76% averaged over the 2 hemispheres, P < 0.00, 1000 permutations; left hemisphere: 78% right hemisphere: 75%). These results are indicative of the majority of all large-scale pathways (both intra as well as interhemispheric tracts) to be present at term, together with an adult-like small-world modular architecture.Figure 3.


The Neonatal Connectome During Preterm Brain Development.

van den Heuvel MP, Kersbergen KJ, de Reus MA, Keunen K, Kahn RS, Groenendaal F, de Vries LS, Benders MJ - Cereb. Cortex (2014)

Comparison of the group-averaged neonatal and adult connectome. Upper panels show the structural connectivity (SC) matrices (NOS weighted) of the neonatal (left) and adult (right) group-averaged connectome. Rows and columns (i.e., nodes of the network) are ordered according to the community structure of the adult FC matrix. Lower panels show the level of positive functional coupling (functional connectivity FC) between each pair of regions in the neonatal (left) an adult connectome (right). Columns and rows (nodes) of the matrices are ordered according to module decomposition of the adult functional connectome, revealing 4 distinct functional modules, overlapping an occipital (visual), temporal (auditory), central (sensory, motor network) and the functional default mode network. Figure shows overlap between both the SC matrices of the neonatal and adult group (overlap: 81%, see Results), confirming our observations that overall SC structure is present before term equivalent birth. Furthermore, overlap between the FC matrices (overlap: 79%, see Results) suggests the presence of outlines of functional modules in the neonatal brain, albeit being in an immature state. Note that the rows and columns (i.e., nodes of the network) are ordered according to the community structure of the adult FC matrix, and thus different from the ordering used in Figure 2.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4537441&req=5

BHU095F3: Comparison of the group-averaged neonatal and adult connectome. Upper panels show the structural connectivity (SC) matrices (NOS weighted) of the neonatal (left) and adult (right) group-averaged connectome. Rows and columns (i.e., nodes of the network) are ordered according to the community structure of the adult FC matrix. Lower panels show the level of positive functional coupling (functional connectivity FC) between each pair of regions in the neonatal (left) an adult connectome (right). Columns and rows (nodes) of the matrices are ordered according to module decomposition of the adult functional connectome, revealing 4 distinct functional modules, overlapping an occipital (visual), temporal (auditory), central (sensory, motor network) and the functional default mode network. Figure shows overlap between both the SC matrices of the neonatal and adult group (overlap: 81%, see Results), confirming our observations that overall SC structure is present before term equivalent birth. Furthermore, overlap between the FC matrices (overlap: 79%, see Results) suggests the presence of outlines of functional modules in the neonatal brain, albeit being in an immature state. Note that the rows and columns (i.e., nodes of the network) are ordered according to the community structure of the adult FC matrix, and thus different from the ordering used in Figure 2.
Mentions: To examine whether particular structures of the adult human connectome are already present at (term equivalent) birth, the organization of the neonate's connectivity circuitry was compared with the organization of the connectome of a group of adults. An adult connectome was reconstructed based on DWI data from a group of healthy adult participants (see Materials and Methods for details). Figure 3a shows a side-by-side comparison of the neonatal connectome and a group-averaged adult connectome, illustrating a high level of overlap between the network of the neonatal brain (left panel) and that of the adult brain (right panel) on SC. For visual comparison, regions of the neonate and adult template are placed into the same arrangement to allow a visual comparison between the 2 networks (see Materials and Methods), showing clear overlap between the structural of the neonatal and adult connectome. Quantitative comparison of the group-averages structural neonatal and adult connectome (comparing the existence and nonexistence of each of the entry in the matrix between the group-averaged neonatal and adult structural connectivity matrix) revealed 84.6% overlap between the 2 matrices (P < 0.001, 1000 permutations). Importantly, focusing on the intrahemispheric connections in the neonatal and adult connectome (i.e., cortico-cortical connections within a single hemisphere, not taking into account interhemispheric corpus callosal tracts) also showed a high level of overlap (76% averaged over the 2 hemispheres, P < 0.00, 1000 permutations; left hemisphere: 78% right hemisphere: 75%). These results are indicative of the majority of all large-scale pathways (both intra as well as interhemispheric tracts) to be present at term, together with an adult-like small-world modular architecture.Figure 3.

Bottom Line: The human connectome is the result of an elaborate developmental trajectory.Analysis of brain development between week 30 and week 40 GA revealed clear developmental effects in neonatal connectome architecture, including a significant increase in white matter microstructure (P < 0.01), small-world topology (P < 0.01) and interhemispheric FC (P < 0.01).Taken together, we conclude that hallmark organizational structures of the human connectome are present before term birth and subject to early development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, The Netherlands.

No MeSH data available.