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The Neonatal Connectome During Preterm Brain Development.

van den Heuvel MP, Kersbergen KJ, de Reus MA, Keunen K, Kahn RS, Groenendaal F, de Vries LS, Benders MJ - Cereb. Cortex (2014)

Bottom Line: The human connectome is the result of an elaborate developmental trajectory.Analysis of brain development between week 30 and week 40 GA revealed clear developmental effects in neonatal connectome architecture, including a significant increase in white matter microstructure (P < 0.01), small-world topology (P < 0.01) and interhemispheric FC (P < 0.01).Taken together, we conclude that hallmark organizational structures of the human connectome are present before term birth and subject to early development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, The Netherlands.

No MeSH data available.


Network descriptive of the neonatal connectome. (a) “Small-world organization of the neonatal brain.” Figure shows the clustering coefficient and shortest path length values of the individual neonatal connectome (dark gray bars) and levels of a set of comparable networks (light gray). Error bars depict variation (standard deviations) across the individual datasets. The small-world index SW was significantly higher than 1, suggesting a small-world organization of the neonatal connectome at term. (b) “Degree distribution.” Figure shows a right-tailed distribution of the group-averaged connectome, indicating the existence of high-degree hub nodes in the neonatal brain. (c) “Hubs.” Figure illustrates the locations of the top 12 high-degree hub nodes in the group-averaged neonatal connectome (locations are shown on one hemisphere only, yielding 8 unique hub locations, see Results). (d) “Rich club organization.” Rich club analysis revealed above rich club coefficient levels >1, indicating dense levels of connectivity between high-degree nodes, as previously reported for the adult connectome.
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BHU095F1: Network descriptive of the neonatal connectome. (a) “Small-world organization of the neonatal brain.” Figure shows the clustering coefficient and shortest path length values of the individual neonatal connectome (dark gray bars) and levels of a set of comparable networks (light gray). Error bars depict variation (standard deviations) across the individual datasets. The small-world index SW was significantly higher than 1, suggesting a small-world organization of the neonatal connectome at term. (b) “Degree distribution.” Figure shows a right-tailed distribution of the group-averaged connectome, indicating the existence of high-degree hub nodes in the neonatal brain. (c) “Hubs.” Figure illustrates the locations of the top 12 high-degree hub nodes in the group-averaged neonatal connectome (locations are shown on one hemisphere only, yielding 8 unique hub locations, see Results). (d) “Rich club organization.” Rich club analysis revealed above rich club coefficient levels >1, indicating dense levels of connectivity between high-degree nodes, as previously reported for the adult connectome.

Mentions: For each individual dataset, a structural brain network was formed on the basis of the diffusion-weighted data, reconstructing the cortico-cortical tracts of the neonatal brain. Examining the (binary) topological organization of the resulting network, revealed high levels of binary clustering (mean/standard: 0.66/0.033) and normalized clustering (1.46/0.25, when compared with 1000 random networks), suggesting a high level of local organization, higher than one can expect on basis of a random topology (Fig. 1a). Furthermore, networks revealed overall short communication paths (mean/standard: 1.70/0.11, normalized: 1.04/0.030, 1000 networks). Taken together, such an efficient local and global organization is indicative of a small-world organization of the preterm neonatal brain (small-world index, mean/standard: 1.40/0.20, 1000 random networks) (Fig. 1). Incorporating information on the weights of the connections on the basis of the number of streamline count (NOS) and FA revealed similar findings, showing above chance levels of clustering and overall short communication paths in the neonatal brain. Consistent with the observed clustering, the neonatal structural connectome revealed high levels of modularity Q (mean/standard: 0.27/0.06), significantly higher than a level of modularity that one would expect on the basis of a random network (P < 0.001).Figure 1.


The Neonatal Connectome During Preterm Brain Development.

van den Heuvel MP, Kersbergen KJ, de Reus MA, Keunen K, Kahn RS, Groenendaal F, de Vries LS, Benders MJ - Cereb. Cortex (2014)

Network descriptive of the neonatal connectome. (a) “Small-world organization of the neonatal brain.” Figure shows the clustering coefficient and shortest path length values of the individual neonatal connectome (dark gray bars) and levels of a set of comparable networks (light gray). Error bars depict variation (standard deviations) across the individual datasets. The small-world index SW was significantly higher than 1, suggesting a small-world organization of the neonatal connectome at term. (b) “Degree distribution.” Figure shows a right-tailed distribution of the group-averaged connectome, indicating the existence of high-degree hub nodes in the neonatal brain. (c) “Hubs.” Figure illustrates the locations of the top 12 high-degree hub nodes in the group-averaged neonatal connectome (locations are shown on one hemisphere only, yielding 8 unique hub locations, see Results). (d) “Rich club organization.” Rich club analysis revealed above rich club coefficient levels >1, indicating dense levels of connectivity between high-degree nodes, as previously reported for the adult connectome.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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BHU095F1: Network descriptive of the neonatal connectome. (a) “Small-world organization of the neonatal brain.” Figure shows the clustering coefficient and shortest path length values of the individual neonatal connectome (dark gray bars) and levels of a set of comparable networks (light gray). Error bars depict variation (standard deviations) across the individual datasets. The small-world index SW was significantly higher than 1, suggesting a small-world organization of the neonatal connectome at term. (b) “Degree distribution.” Figure shows a right-tailed distribution of the group-averaged connectome, indicating the existence of high-degree hub nodes in the neonatal brain. (c) “Hubs.” Figure illustrates the locations of the top 12 high-degree hub nodes in the group-averaged neonatal connectome (locations are shown on one hemisphere only, yielding 8 unique hub locations, see Results). (d) “Rich club organization.” Rich club analysis revealed above rich club coefficient levels >1, indicating dense levels of connectivity between high-degree nodes, as previously reported for the adult connectome.
Mentions: For each individual dataset, a structural brain network was formed on the basis of the diffusion-weighted data, reconstructing the cortico-cortical tracts of the neonatal brain. Examining the (binary) topological organization of the resulting network, revealed high levels of binary clustering (mean/standard: 0.66/0.033) and normalized clustering (1.46/0.25, when compared with 1000 random networks), suggesting a high level of local organization, higher than one can expect on basis of a random topology (Fig. 1a). Furthermore, networks revealed overall short communication paths (mean/standard: 1.70/0.11, normalized: 1.04/0.030, 1000 networks). Taken together, such an efficient local and global organization is indicative of a small-world organization of the preterm neonatal brain (small-world index, mean/standard: 1.40/0.20, 1000 random networks) (Fig. 1). Incorporating information on the weights of the connections on the basis of the number of streamline count (NOS) and FA revealed similar findings, showing above chance levels of clustering and overall short communication paths in the neonatal brain. Consistent with the observed clustering, the neonatal structural connectome revealed high levels of modularity Q (mean/standard: 0.27/0.06), significantly higher than a level of modularity that one would expect on the basis of a random network (P < 0.001).Figure 1.

Bottom Line: The human connectome is the result of an elaborate developmental trajectory.Analysis of brain development between week 30 and week 40 GA revealed clear developmental effects in neonatal connectome architecture, including a significant increase in white matter microstructure (P < 0.01), small-world topology (P < 0.01) and interhemispheric FC (P < 0.01).Taken together, we conclude that hallmark organizational structures of the human connectome are present before term birth and subject to early development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, The Netherlands.

No MeSH data available.