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Rac-GTPases Regulate Microtubule Stability and Axon Growth of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons.

Tivodar S, Kalemaki K, Kounoupa Z, Vidaki M, Theodorakis K, Denaxa M, Kessaris N, de Curtis I, Pachnis V, Karagogeos D - Cereb. Cortex (2014)

Bottom Line: We show that in the absence of both Rac proteins, the embryonic migration of medial ganglionic eminence-derived interneurons is further impaired.In addition, Rac1/Rac3-deficient interneurons show gross cytoskeletal defects in vitro, with the length of their leading processes significantly reduced and a clear multipolar morphology.We propose that in the absence of Rac1/Rac3, cortical interneurons fail to migrate tangentially towards the pallium due to defects in actin and microtubule cytoskeletal dynamics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB, FORTH), Heraklion, Greece Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The abnormal morphology of Rac1/Rac3-deficient interneurons is changed by treatment with taxol. MGE-derived cells were cultured on collagen-coated coverslips for 24 h, followed by a period of 48 h culture in the presence of taxol. Subsequently the cells were processed for immunohistochemistry against Phalloidin-Alexa593 conjugated and GFP antibodies (A–D′). The length and the number of leading processes were measured (E, F) and statistical significance was assessed, using Student's t-test (P value ). After the treatment with taxol, the length of the leading process was increased. In addition, the taxol-treated double-mutant cells presented fewer neurites per cell then the untreated cells (F). Scale bars A, B, C, and D: 75 μm; A′, B, C′, and D′: 25 μm.
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BHU037F8: The abnormal morphology of Rac1/Rac3-deficient interneurons is changed by treatment with taxol. MGE-derived cells were cultured on collagen-coated coverslips for 24 h, followed by a period of 48 h culture in the presence of taxol. Subsequently the cells were processed for immunohistochemistry against Phalloidin-Alexa593 conjugated and GFP antibodies (A–D′). The length and the number of leading processes were measured (E, F) and statistical significance was assessed, using Student's t-test (P value ). After the treatment with taxol, the length of the leading process was increased. In addition, the taxol-treated double-mutant cells presented fewer neurites per cell then the untreated cells (F). Scale bars A, B, C, and D: 75 μm; A′, B, C′, and D′: 25 μm.

Mentions: The reduction in the amount of Ac-Tubulin in the double-mutant MGE-derived cells could be an indication that the amount of stable microtubules is also affected. We treated MGE-derived cells from control and double mutants in culture with taxol, which is known to stabilize microtubules by reducing their dynamics (Etienne-Manneville 2010). We observed a partial rescue after taxol treatment assessed by the length and the number of leading processes in the double-mutant cultures (Fig. 8). Leading process length was increased and the number of processes was reduced in the presence of taxol in cells where both Rac1 and Rac3 proteins were deleted (Fig. 8E,F).Figure 8.


Rac-GTPases Regulate Microtubule Stability and Axon Growth of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons.

Tivodar S, Kalemaki K, Kounoupa Z, Vidaki M, Theodorakis K, Denaxa M, Kessaris N, de Curtis I, Pachnis V, Karagogeos D - Cereb. Cortex (2014)

The abnormal morphology of Rac1/Rac3-deficient interneurons is changed by treatment with taxol. MGE-derived cells were cultured on collagen-coated coverslips for 24 h, followed by a period of 48 h culture in the presence of taxol. Subsequently the cells were processed for immunohistochemistry against Phalloidin-Alexa593 conjugated and GFP antibodies (A–D′). The length and the number of leading processes were measured (E, F) and statistical significance was assessed, using Student's t-test (P value ). After the treatment with taxol, the length of the leading process was increased. In addition, the taxol-treated double-mutant cells presented fewer neurites per cell then the untreated cells (F). Scale bars A, B, C, and D: 75 μm; A′, B, C′, and D′: 25 μm.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4537417&req=5

BHU037F8: The abnormal morphology of Rac1/Rac3-deficient interneurons is changed by treatment with taxol. MGE-derived cells were cultured on collagen-coated coverslips for 24 h, followed by a period of 48 h culture in the presence of taxol. Subsequently the cells were processed for immunohistochemistry against Phalloidin-Alexa593 conjugated and GFP antibodies (A–D′). The length and the number of leading processes were measured (E, F) and statistical significance was assessed, using Student's t-test (P value ). After the treatment with taxol, the length of the leading process was increased. In addition, the taxol-treated double-mutant cells presented fewer neurites per cell then the untreated cells (F). Scale bars A, B, C, and D: 75 μm; A′, B, C′, and D′: 25 μm.
Mentions: The reduction in the amount of Ac-Tubulin in the double-mutant MGE-derived cells could be an indication that the amount of stable microtubules is also affected. We treated MGE-derived cells from control and double mutants in culture with taxol, which is known to stabilize microtubules by reducing their dynamics (Etienne-Manneville 2010). We observed a partial rescue after taxol treatment assessed by the length and the number of leading processes in the double-mutant cultures (Fig. 8). Leading process length was increased and the number of processes was reduced in the presence of taxol in cells where both Rac1 and Rac3 proteins were deleted (Fig. 8E,F).Figure 8.

Bottom Line: We show that in the absence of both Rac proteins, the embryonic migration of medial ganglionic eminence-derived interneurons is further impaired.In addition, Rac1/Rac3-deficient interneurons show gross cytoskeletal defects in vitro, with the length of their leading processes significantly reduced and a clear multipolar morphology.We propose that in the absence of Rac1/Rac3, cortical interneurons fail to migrate tangentially towards the pallium due to defects in actin and microtubule cytoskeletal dynamics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB, FORTH), Heraklion, Greece Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus