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Rac-GTPases Regulate Microtubule Stability and Axon Growth of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons.

Tivodar S, Kalemaki K, Kounoupa Z, Vidaki M, Theodorakis K, Denaxa M, Kessaris N, de Curtis I, Pachnis V, Karagogeos D - Cereb. Cortex (2014)

Bottom Line: We show that in the absence of both Rac proteins, the embryonic migration of medial ganglionic eminence-derived interneurons is further impaired.In addition, Rac1/Rac3-deficient interneurons show gross cytoskeletal defects in vitro, with the length of their leading processes significantly reduced and a clear multipolar morphology.We propose that in the absence of Rac1/Rac3, cortical interneurons fail to migrate tangentially towards the pallium due to defects in actin and microtubule cytoskeletal dynamics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB, FORTH), Heraklion, Greece Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

In vivo the migrating Rac1/Rac3-deficient cells have shorter leading process length compare with the control cells. Coronal sections from E15.5 control and Rac1/Rac3 double-mutant embryos were stained with an anti-GFP antibody (A, B). A′ and B′ high magnification of the boxed areas in A, B used for quantifications. The number of YFP+ cells (C), the length of the leading processes (D), the number of neurites (E), and the angle between the leading processes and migration axis (F), were determined and statistical significance was assessed, using Student's t-test (P value < 0.05, n = 20). Error bars represent the standard error of mean. Scale bars: A, B 300 μm; A′ and B′ 50 μm.
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BHU037F4: In vivo the migrating Rac1/Rac3-deficient cells have shorter leading process length compare with the control cells. Coronal sections from E15.5 control and Rac1/Rac3 double-mutant embryos were stained with an anti-GFP antibody (A, B). A′ and B′ high magnification of the boxed areas in A, B used for quantifications. The number of YFP+ cells (C), the length of the leading processes (D), the number of neurites (E), and the angle between the leading processes and migration axis (F), were determined and statistical significance was assessed, using Student's t-test (P value < 0.05, n = 20). Error bars represent the standard error of mean. Scale bars: A, B 300 μm; A′ and B′ 50 μm.

Mentions: Rho-GTPases control cell cytoskeleton and morphology in several contexts. We monitored the morphology of YFP+ migrating cells in vivo at E15.5 (Fig. 4A,B) in the double mutants by YFP immunostaining. Very few YFP+ Rac1/Rac3-deficient cells have entered the dorsal telencephalon (Fig. 4C), with shorter leading processes (Fig. 4D) without any change in the number of processes per cell (Fig. 4E) and the angle the leading process forms with the presumptive migration axis when compared with controls (Fig. 4F). The absence of Rac1 alone revealed shorter neurites and defective lamellipodia formation when compared with control cells in the ventrally aggregated YFP+ population grown in vitro (Fig. 7 of Vidaki et al. 2012).Figure 4.


Rac-GTPases Regulate Microtubule Stability and Axon Growth of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons.

Tivodar S, Kalemaki K, Kounoupa Z, Vidaki M, Theodorakis K, Denaxa M, Kessaris N, de Curtis I, Pachnis V, Karagogeos D - Cereb. Cortex (2014)

In vivo the migrating Rac1/Rac3-deficient cells have shorter leading process length compare with the control cells. Coronal sections from E15.5 control and Rac1/Rac3 double-mutant embryos were stained with an anti-GFP antibody (A, B). A′ and B′ high magnification of the boxed areas in A, B used for quantifications. The number of YFP+ cells (C), the length of the leading processes (D), the number of neurites (E), and the angle between the leading processes and migration axis (F), were determined and statistical significance was assessed, using Student's t-test (P value < 0.05, n = 20). Error bars represent the standard error of mean. Scale bars: A, B 300 μm; A′ and B′ 50 μm.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4537417&req=5

BHU037F4: In vivo the migrating Rac1/Rac3-deficient cells have shorter leading process length compare with the control cells. Coronal sections from E15.5 control and Rac1/Rac3 double-mutant embryos were stained with an anti-GFP antibody (A, B). A′ and B′ high magnification of the boxed areas in A, B used for quantifications. The number of YFP+ cells (C), the length of the leading processes (D), the number of neurites (E), and the angle between the leading processes and migration axis (F), were determined and statistical significance was assessed, using Student's t-test (P value < 0.05, n = 20). Error bars represent the standard error of mean. Scale bars: A, B 300 μm; A′ and B′ 50 μm.
Mentions: Rho-GTPases control cell cytoskeleton and morphology in several contexts. We monitored the morphology of YFP+ migrating cells in vivo at E15.5 (Fig. 4A,B) in the double mutants by YFP immunostaining. Very few YFP+ Rac1/Rac3-deficient cells have entered the dorsal telencephalon (Fig. 4C), with shorter leading processes (Fig. 4D) without any change in the number of processes per cell (Fig. 4E) and the angle the leading process forms with the presumptive migration axis when compared with controls (Fig. 4F). The absence of Rac1 alone revealed shorter neurites and defective lamellipodia formation when compared with control cells in the ventrally aggregated YFP+ population grown in vitro (Fig. 7 of Vidaki et al. 2012).Figure 4.

Bottom Line: We show that in the absence of both Rac proteins, the embryonic migration of medial ganglionic eminence-derived interneurons is further impaired.In addition, Rac1/Rac3-deficient interneurons show gross cytoskeletal defects in vitro, with the length of their leading processes significantly reduced and a clear multipolar morphology.We propose that in the absence of Rac1/Rac3, cortical interneurons fail to migrate tangentially towards the pallium due to defects in actin and microtubule cytoskeletal dynamics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB, FORTH), Heraklion, Greece Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus