Limits...
Extracellular fluid flow and chloride content modulate H(+) transport by osteoclasts.

Morethson P - BMC Cell Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Bone resorption takes place within the basic multicellular units (BMU), and the surface to be resorbed is isolated from adjacent bone surfaces by a sealing zone between osteoclast membrane and bone matrix, which defines the limits of the resorption lacuna.Considering that the extracellular fluid (ECF) in both BMU and the resorption lacuna can be isolated from its surroundings, I hypothesize that flow and ion composition of the bone ECF in these sites might contribute to the regulation of osteoclast H(+) secretion.The data suggest, for the first time, that ECF flow and Cl(-) content have direct effects on osteoclast H(+) secretion and could be part of a mechanism determining the onset of osteoclast H(+) secretion required for bone resorption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. primoret@icb.usp.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bone resorption takes place within the basic multicellular units (BMU), and the surface to be resorbed is isolated from adjacent bone surfaces by a sealing zone between osteoclast membrane and bone matrix, which defines the limits of the resorption lacuna. Considering that the extracellular fluid (ECF) in both BMU and the resorption lacuna can be isolated from its surroundings, I hypothesize that flow and ion composition of the bone ECF in these sites might contribute to the regulation of osteoclast H(+) secretion. To investigate this hypothesis, I evaluated the H(+) secretion properties of individual osteoclasts and osteoclast-like cells (OCL-cells) and investigated whether changes in flow or chloride content of the extracellular solution modify the H(+) secretion properties in vitro.

Results: The results show that 1) osteoclasts are unable to secrete H(+) and regulate intracellular pH (pHi) under continuous flow conditions and exhibit progressive intracellular acidification; 2) the cessation of flow coincides with the onset of H(+) secretion and subsequent progressive intracellular alkalinization of osteoclasts and OCL-cells; 3) osteoclasts exhibit spontaneous rhythmic oscillations of pHi in non-flowing ECF, 4) pHi oscillations are not abolished by concanamycin, NPPB, or removal of extracellular Na(+) or Cl(-); 5) extracellular Cl(-) removal modifies the pattern of oscillations, by diminishing H(+) secretion; 6) pHi oscillations are abolished by continuous flowing of ECF over osteoclasts and OCL-cells.

Conclusions: The data suggest, for the first time, that ECF flow and Cl(-) content have direct effects on osteoclast H(+) secretion and could be part of a mechanism determining the onset of osteoclast H(+) secretion required for bone resorption.

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Schematic diagram of proteins involved in acid and base transfer across the osteoclast plasma membrane. RB = ruffled border; SZ = sealing zone; CA = carbonic anhydrase
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Fig1: Schematic diagram of proteins involved in acid and base transfer across the osteoclast plasma membrane. RB = ruffled border; SZ = sealing zone; CA = carbonic anhydrase

Mentions: The movement of acid–base equivalents across the plasma membrane is crucial for pHi regulation [14, 15]. At the osteoclast plasma membrane, the base-transporters include NBCn1 (Na+-HCO3− cotransporter) [16], and AE2 (Cl−/HCO3− anion exchanger) [12, 17, 18]; and the acid-transporters include V-ATPase, Na+/H+ exchanger and the aforementioned H+ conductance [5, 6, 13]. In addition to its role in osteoclast pH regulation, H+ secretion by the V-ATPase works in parallel with ClC-7 [19], which have been proposed as the key components of cellular machinery for extracellular acidification at the ruffled border (Fig. 1). It should also be noted that pHi regulation is related to the translocation of several ions (as Na+ and Cl−) across the plasma membrane by specific proteins.Fig. 1


Extracellular fluid flow and chloride content modulate H(+) transport by osteoclasts.

Morethson P - BMC Cell Biol. (2015)

Schematic diagram of proteins involved in acid and base transfer across the osteoclast plasma membrane. RB = ruffled border; SZ = sealing zone; CA = carbonic anhydrase
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4536797&req=5

Fig1: Schematic diagram of proteins involved in acid and base transfer across the osteoclast plasma membrane. RB = ruffled border; SZ = sealing zone; CA = carbonic anhydrase
Mentions: The movement of acid–base equivalents across the plasma membrane is crucial for pHi regulation [14, 15]. At the osteoclast plasma membrane, the base-transporters include NBCn1 (Na+-HCO3− cotransporter) [16], and AE2 (Cl−/HCO3− anion exchanger) [12, 17, 18]; and the acid-transporters include V-ATPase, Na+/H+ exchanger and the aforementioned H+ conductance [5, 6, 13]. In addition to its role in osteoclast pH regulation, H+ secretion by the V-ATPase works in parallel with ClC-7 [19], which have been proposed as the key components of cellular machinery for extracellular acidification at the ruffled border (Fig. 1). It should also be noted that pHi regulation is related to the translocation of several ions (as Na+ and Cl−) across the plasma membrane by specific proteins.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Bone resorption takes place within the basic multicellular units (BMU), and the surface to be resorbed is isolated from adjacent bone surfaces by a sealing zone between osteoclast membrane and bone matrix, which defines the limits of the resorption lacuna.Considering that the extracellular fluid (ECF) in both BMU and the resorption lacuna can be isolated from its surroundings, I hypothesize that flow and ion composition of the bone ECF in these sites might contribute to the regulation of osteoclast H(+) secretion.The data suggest, for the first time, that ECF flow and Cl(-) content have direct effects on osteoclast H(+) secretion and could be part of a mechanism determining the onset of osteoclast H(+) secretion required for bone resorption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. primoret@icb.usp.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bone resorption takes place within the basic multicellular units (BMU), and the surface to be resorbed is isolated from adjacent bone surfaces by a sealing zone between osteoclast membrane and bone matrix, which defines the limits of the resorption lacuna. Considering that the extracellular fluid (ECF) in both BMU and the resorption lacuna can be isolated from its surroundings, I hypothesize that flow and ion composition of the bone ECF in these sites might contribute to the regulation of osteoclast H(+) secretion. To investigate this hypothesis, I evaluated the H(+) secretion properties of individual osteoclasts and osteoclast-like cells (OCL-cells) and investigated whether changes in flow or chloride content of the extracellular solution modify the H(+) secretion properties in vitro.

Results: The results show that 1) osteoclasts are unable to secrete H(+) and regulate intracellular pH (pHi) under continuous flow conditions and exhibit progressive intracellular acidification; 2) the cessation of flow coincides with the onset of H(+) secretion and subsequent progressive intracellular alkalinization of osteoclasts and OCL-cells; 3) osteoclasts exhibit spontaneous rhythmic oscillations of pHi in non-flowing ECF, 4) pHi oscillations are not abolished by concanamycin, NPPB, or removal of extracellular Na(+) or Cl(-); 5) extracellular Cl(-) removal modifies the pattern of oscillations, by diminishing H(+) secretion; 6) pHi oscillations are abolished by continuous flowing of ECF over osteoclasts and OCL-cells.

Conclusions: The data suggest, for the first time, that ECF flow and Cl(-) content have direct effects on osteoclast H(+) secretion and could be part of a mechanism determining the onset of osteoclast H(+) secretion required for bone resorption.

Show MeSH