Limits...
Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Adults and Adolescents: Current Concepts and Future Directions.

Tasaka S - Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med (2015)

Bottom Line: High-resolution computed tomography, which typically shows diffuse ground-glass opacities, is informative for the evaluation of immunocompromised patients with suspected PCP and normal chest radiography.Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the first-line agent for the treatment of mild to severe PCP, although it is often complicated with various side effects.Since TMP-SMX is widely used for the prophylaxis, the putative drug resistance is an emerging concern.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most common opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Colonization of Pneumocystis is highly prevalent among the general population and could be associated with the transmission and development of PCP in immunocompromised individuals. Although the microscopic demonstration of the organisms in respiratory specimens is still the golden standard of its diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction has been shown to have a high sensitivity, detecting Pneumocystis DNA in induced sputum or oropharyngeal wash. Serum β-D-glucan is useful as an adjunctive tool for the diagnosis of PCP. High-resolution computed tomography, which typically shows diffuse ground-glass opacities, is informative for the evaluation of immunocompromised patients with suspected PCP and normal chest radiography. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the first-line agent for the treatment of mild to severe PCP, although it is often complicated with various side effects. Since TMP-SMX is widely used for the prophylaxis, the putative drug resistance is an emerging concern.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

High-resolution computed tomographic image of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, showing diffuse GGO with interlobular septal lines and cyst formation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4536784&req=5

f2-ccrpm-suppl.1-2015-019: High-resolution computed tomographic image of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, showing diffuse GGO with interlobular septal lines and cyst formation.

Mentions: With widespread use of chemoprophylaxis, other HRCT manifestations of AIDS-related PCP are more commonly reported. Pulmonary cysts of varying shape, size, and wall thickness occur in as many as one-third of patients with PCP.78,82,83 Cysts are associated with an increased frequency of spontaneous pneumothorax, although spontaneous pneumothorax can occur in the absence of definable lung cysts (Fig. 2).84 Cysts may resolve after treatment and clearing of infection.78 It remains controversial whether cyst formation is a characteristic CT finding of PCP in AIDS patients.38,39,85


Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Adults and Adolescents: Current Concepts and Future Directions.

Tasaka S - Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med (2015)

High-resolution computed tomographic image of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, showing diffuse GGO with interlobular septal lines and cyst formation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4536784&req=5

f2-ccrpm-suppl.1-2015-019: High-resolution computed tomographic image of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, showing diffuse GGO with interlobular septal lines and cyst formation.
Mentions: With widespread use of chemoprophylaxis, other HRCT manifestations of AIDS-related PCP are more commonly reported. Pulmonary cysts of varying shape, size, and wall thickness occur in as many as one-third of patients with PCP.78,82,83 Cysts are associated with an increased frequency of spontaneous pneumothorax, although spontaneous pneumothorax can occur in the absence of definable lung cysts (Fig. 2).84 Cysts may resolve after treatment and clearing of infection.78 It remains controversial whether cyst formation is a characteristic CT finding of PCP in AIDS patients.38,39,85

Bottom Line: High-resolution computed tomography, which typically shows diffuse ground-glass opacities, is informative for the evaluation of immunocompromised patients with suspected PCP and normal chest radiography.Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the first-line agent for the treatment of mild to severe PCP, although it is often complicated with various side effects.Since TMP-SMX is widely used for the prophylaxis, the putative drug resistance is an emerging concern.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most common opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Colonization of Pneumocystis is highly prevalent among the general population and could be associated with the transmission and development of PCP in immunocompromised individuals. Although the microscopic demonstration of the organisms in respiratory specimens is still the golden standard of its diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction has been shown to have a high sensitivity, detecting Pneumocystis DNA in induced sputum or oropharyngeal wash. Serum β-D-glucan is useful as an adjunctive tool for the diagnosis of PCP. High-resolution computed tomography, which typically shows diffuse ground-glass opacities, is informative for the evaluation of immunocompromised patients with suspected PCP and normal chest radiography. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the first-line agent for the treatment of mild to severe PCP, although it is often complicated with various side effects. Since TMP-SMX is widely used for the prophylaxis, the putative drug resistance is an emerging concern.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus