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Systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent smoking for girls.

de Kleijn MJ, Farmer MM, Booth M, Motala A, Smith A, Sherman S, Assendelft WJ, Shekelle P - Syst Rev (2015)

Bottom Line: One study in which a school-based intervention was combined with a mass media intervention showed more promising results compared to only school-based prevention, and four studies with girl-specific interventions, that could not be included in the pooled analysis, reported statistically significant benefits for attitudes and intentions about smoking and quit rates.There was no evidence that school-based smoking prevention programs have a significant effect on preventing adolescent girls from smoking.Combining school-based programs with mass media interventions, and developing girl-specific interventions, deserve additional study as potentially more effective interventions compared to school-based-only intervention programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Gender & Women's Health, Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Center, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. mjjdekleijn@me.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among children. We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Databases, CINAHL, Social Science Abstracts, and PsycInfo. Two reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion and quality and extracted data. A pooled random-effects estimate was estimated of the overall relative risk.

Results: Thirty-seven trials were included, of which 16 trials with 24,210 girls were included in the pooled analysis. The overall pooled effect was a relative risk (RR) of 0.96 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.08; I (2)=75 %). One study in which a school-based intervention was combined with a mass media intervention showed more promising results compared to only school-based prevention, and four studies with girl-specific interventions, that could not be included in the pooled analysis, reported statistically significant benefits for attitudes and intentions about smoking and quit rates.

Conclusions: There was no evidence that school-based smoking prevention programs have a significant effect on preventing adolescent girls from smoking. Combining school-based programs with mass media interventions, and developing girl-specific interventions, deserve additional study as potentially more effective interventions compared to school-based-only intervention programs.

Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42012002322.

No MeSH data available.


Pooled analysis
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Fig2: Pooled analysis

Mentions: Twenty-one studies were excluded from the pooled analysis for the following reasons: the outcome of interest (percent of starters) was not reported (eight studies) [28, 29, 36, 45, 54, 57–59], the data was not reported by gender (five studies) [27, 30, 39, 53, 60], the data was not in a usable format—the number of girls who started smoking was not reported by intervention group (six studies) [32, 34, 35, 42, 52, 56], or they compared a mass media intervention combined with school intervention versus a school intervention alone, so their control group was not usual care (two studies) [50, 51]. Therefore, of the 37 included studies (described in 43 articles), 16 were analyzed in the pooled analysis [16, 17, 26, 31, 33, 37, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46–49, 55] (see Fig. 2. Pooled analysis) including data on 24,210 girls.Fig. 2


Systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent smoking for girls.

de Kleijn MJ, Farmer MM, Booth M, Motala A, Smith A, Sherman S, Assendelft WJ, Shekelle P - Syst Rev (2015)

Pooled analysis
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4536766&req=5

Fig2: Pooled analysis
Mentions: Twenty-one studies were excluded from the pooled analysis for the following reasons: the outcome of interest (percent of starters) was not reported (eight studies) [28, 29, 36, 45, 54, 57–59], the data was not reported by gender (five studies) [27, 30, 39, 53, 60], the data was not in a usable format—the number of girls who started smoking was not reported by intervention group (six studies) [32, 34, 35, 42, 52, 56], or they compared a mass media intervention combined with school intervention versus a school intervention alone, so their control group was not usual care (two studies) [50, 51]. Therefore, of the 37 included studies (described in 43 articles), 16 were analyzed in the pooled analysis [16, 17, 26, 31, 33, 37, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46–49, 55] (see Fig. 2. Pooled analysis) including data on 24,210 girls.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: One study in which a school-based intervention was combined with a mass media intervention showed more promising results compared to only school-based prevention, and four studies with girl-specific interventions, that could not be included in the pooled analysis, reported statistically significant benefits for attitudes and intentions about smoking and quit rates.There was no evidence that school-based smoking prevention programs have a significant effect on preventing adolescent girls from smoking.Combining school-based programs with mass media interventions, and developing girl-specific interventions, deserve additional study as potentially more effective interventions compared to school-based-only intervention programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Gender & Women's Health, Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Center, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. mjjdekleijn@me.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among children. We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Databases, CINAHL, Social Science Abstracts, and PsycInfo. Two reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion and quality and extracted data. A pooled random-effects estimate was estimated of the overall relative risk.

Results: Thirty-seven trials were included, of which 16 trials with 24,210 girls were included in the pooled analysis. The overall pooled effect was a relative risk (RR) of 0.96 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.08; I (2)=75 %). One study in which a school-based intervention was combined with a mass media intervention showed more promising results compared to only school-based prevention, and four studies with girl-specific interventions, that could not be included in the pooled analysis, reported statistically significant benefits for attitudes and intentions about smoking and quit rates.

Conclusions: There was no evidence that school-based smoking prevention programs have a significant effect on preventing adolescent girls from smoking. Combining school-based programs with mass media interventions, and developing girl-specific interventions, deserve additional study as potentially more effective interventions compared to school-based-only intervention programs.

Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42012002322.

No MeSH data available.