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The major acute phase proteins of bovine milk in a commercial dairy herd.

Thomas FC, Waterston M, Hastie P, Parkin T, Haining H, Eckersall PD - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: Composite milk APP results were compared with cow factors including parity, stage of lactation, percentage protein and fat as well as somatic cell counts (SCC).Significant correlations were found between composite SCC and Hp (P-value <0.009) as well as parity and Hp (P < 0.009), but not between M-SAA3 and SCC, M-SAA3 and Hp, M-SAA3 and CRP or M-SAA3 and parity.The lack of correlation of SCC with the M-SAA3 and CRP could result from these APP being more sensitive to intra-mammary infection than SCC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bearsden Rd, Glasgow, G61 1QH, UK. f.thomas.1@research.gla.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Milk acute phase proteins (APP) have been identified and show promise as biomarkers of mastitis. However analysis of their profile in dairy cows from a production herd is necessary in order to confirm their benefits in mastitis diagnosis. The profiles of milk haptoglobin (Hp), mammary associated serum amyloid A3 (M-SAA3) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined in 54 composite milk (milk from all functional quarters of a cow's udder collected in a common receptacle) samples (CMS) from a commercial dairy farm. Milk Hp was also determined in individual quarter milk (milk from a single udder quarter) samples (QMS) (n = 149) of the cows. An ELISA was developed and validated for the determination of milk Hp while commercial kits were used for M-SAA3 and CRP assay respectively. Composite milk APP results were compared with cow factors including parity, stage of lactation, percentage protein and fat as well as somatic cell counts (SCC).

Results: Composite milk Hp ranged from <0.4-55 μg/ml with a median of 3.5 μg/ml; composite milk M-SAA3 ranged from <0.6-50 μg/ml and had a median of 1.2 μg/ml, while CRP ranged from <1.80-173 ng/ml and had a median of 24.6 ng/ml. Significant correlations were found between composite SCC and Hp (P-value <0.009) as well as parity and Hp (P < 0.009), but not between M-SAA3 and SCC, M-SAA3 and Hp, M-SAA3 and CRP or M-SAA3 and parity. Milk CRP was correlated with % fat (P = 0.002) and % protein (P = 0.001) of the milk samples. The lack of correlation of SCC with the M-SAA3 and CRP could result from these APP being more sensitive to intra-mammary infection than SCC. Quarter milk Hp had a range of <0.4-420 μg/ml with a median value of 3.6 μg/ml, with 92 % of samples below 20 μg/ml.

Conclusion: Baseline values of Hp, M-SAA3 and CRP were established in composite milk from cows with normal SCC on the dairy farm. Parity was recognized as a possible confounding factor when diagnosing mastitis using Hp. The value of the APP, Hp, M-SAA3 and CRP as substitutes or to complement SCC in indicating udder inflammation, was demonstrated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Boxplot showing CRP concentration (ng/ml) in the two SCC categories of composite milk samples * indicates an extreme values, (values greater than 3 interquartile range (IQR) away from 25th or 75th percentile); IQR = 3rd quartile -1st quartile (represented by the height of the box). ° indicates outlier values (values greater than 1.5 interquartile range (IQR) away from 25th or 75th percentile); IQR = 3rd quartile -1st quartile (represented by the height of the box)
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Fig3: Boxplot showing CRP concentration (ng/ml) in the two SCC categories of composite milk samples * indicates an extreme values, (values greater than 3 interquartile range (IQR) away from 25th or 75th percentile); IQR = 3rd quartile -1st quartile (represented by the height of the box). ° indicates outlier values (values greater than 1.5 interquartile range (IQR) away from 25th or 75th percentile); IQR = 3rd quartile -1st quartile (represented by the height of the box)

Mentions: Significant differences were observed in the Hp concentrations of the SCC high (>200,000 cells/ml) and low (≤200,000 cells/ml) categories (P = 0.001), Fig. 1 shows box and whiskers plots of Hp in the two SCC categories. There were no significant differences in the M-SAA3 and CRP values of milk from high (>200,000 cells/ml) or low (≤200,000 cells/ml) SCC groups (box plots shown in Figs. 2 and 3 respectively). In this study, we used these SCC values as cut off value for discriminating a high from low SCC in composite milk. No significant variations in the APP of the second set of SCC categories healthy (≤100,000 cells/ml), SM (101,000–200,000 cells/ml) and CM (>200,000 cells/ml) was observed, descriptive statistics of each APP in these categories are given in Table 2. This may be due to the small number of samples per group following this categorisation. The lack of statistical significance between the groups based on SCC cut off values in M-SAA3 and CRP and with the second set of SCC categories may be due to elevated concentration of the APP in the ‘healthy’ group which are selected on the basis of SCC result. It is possible that the APP are more sensitive to IMI than SCC which results in elevation of the APP when SCC is not affected. Raised levels of the APP indicate that there is an on-going cytokine mediated inflammatory response and may in practise give a more sensitive indication to the presence of mastitis than the currently used SCC test and it may be that combining results from all 3 APP would provide more diagnostic information.Fig. 1


The major acute phase proteins of bovine milk in a commercial dairy herd.

Thomas FC, Waterston M, Hastie P, Parkin T, Haining H, Eckersall PD - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Boxplot showing CRP concentration (ng/ml) in the two SCC categories of composite milk samples * indicates an extreme values, (values greater than 3 interquartile range (IQR) away from 25th or 75th percentile); IQR = 3rd quartile -1st quartile (represented by the height of the box). ° indicates outlier values (values greater than 1.5 interquartile range (IQR) away from 25th or 75th percentile); IQR = 3rd quartile -1st quartile (represented by the height of the box)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4536752&req=5

Fig3: Boxplot showing CRP concentration (ng/ml) in the two SCC categories of composite milk samples * indicates an extreme values, (values greater than 3 interquartile range (IQR) away from 25th or 75th percentile); IQR = 3rd quartile -1st quartile (represented by the height of the box). ° indicates outlier values (values greater than 1.5 interquartile range (IQR) away from 25th or 75th percentile); IQR = 3rd quartile -1st quartile (represented by the height of the box)
Mentions: Significant differences were observed in the Hp concentrations of the SCC high (>200,000 cells/ml) and low (≤200,000 cells/ml) categories (P = 0.001), Fig. 1 shows box and whiskers plots of Hp in the two SCC categories. There were no significant differences in the M-SAA3 and CRP values of milk from high (>200,000 cells/ml) or low (≤200,000 cells/ml) SCC groups (box plots shown in Figs. 2 and 3 respectively). In this study, we used these SCC values as cut off value for discriminating a high from low SCC in composite milk. No significant variations in the APP of the second set of SCC categories healthy (≤100,000 cells/ml), SM (101,000–200,000 cells/ml) and CM (>200,000 cells/ml) was observed, descriptive statistics of each APP in these categories are given in Table 2. This may be due to the small number of samples per group following this categorisation. The lack of statistical significance between the groups based on SCC cut off values in M-SAA3 and CRP and with the second set of SCC categories may be due to elevated concentration of the APP in the ‘healthy’ group which are selected on the basis of SCC result. It is possible that the APP are more sensitive to IMI than SCC which results in elevation of the APP when SCC is not affected. Raised levels of the APP indicate that there is an on-going cytokine mediated inflammatory response and may in practise give a more sensitive indication to the presence of mastitis than the currently used SCC test and it may be that combining results from all 3 APP would provide more diagnostic information.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Composite milk APP results were compared with cow factors including parity, stage of lactation, percentage protein and fat as well as somatic cell counts (SCC).Significant correlations were found between composite SCC and Hp (P-value <0.009) as well as parity and Hp (P < 0.009), but not between M-SAA3 and SCC, M-SAA3 and Hp, M-SAA3 and CRP or M-SAA3 and parity.The lack of correlation of SCC with the M-SAA3 and CRP could result from these APP being more sensitive to intra-mammary infection than SCC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bearsden Rd, Glasgow, G61 1QH, UK. f.thomas.1@research.gla.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Milk acute phase proteins (APP) have been identified and show promise as biomarkers of mastitis. However analysis of their profile in dairy cows from a production herd is necessary in order to confirm their benefits in mastitis diagnosis. The profiles of milk haptoglobin (Hp), mammary associated serum amyloid A3 (M-SAA3) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined in 54 composite milk (milk from all functional quarters of a cow's udder collected in a common receptacle) samples (CMS) from a commercial dairy farm. Milk Hp was also determined in individual quarter milk (milk from a single udder quarter) samples (QMS) (n = 149) of the cows. An ELISA was developed and validated for the determination of milk Hp while commercial kits were used for M-SAA3 and CRP assay respectively. Composite milk APP results were compared with cow factors including parity, stage of lactation, percentage protein and fat as well as somatic cell counts (SCC).

Results: Composite milk Hp ranged from <0.4-55 μg/ml with a median of 3.5 μg/ml; composite milk M-SAA3 ranged from <0.6-50 μg/ml and had a median of 1.2 μg/ml, while CRP ranged from <1.80-173 ng/ml and had a median of 24.6 ng/ml. Significant correlations were found between composite SCC and Hp (P-value <0.009) as well as parity and Hp (P < 0.009), but not between M-SAA3 and SCC, M-SAA3 and Hp, M-SAA3 and CRP or M-SAA3 and parity. Milk CRP was correlated with % fat (P = 0.002) and % protein (P = 0.001) of the milk samples. The lack of correlation of SCC with the M-SAA3 and CRP could result from these APP being more sensitive to intra-mammary infection than SCC. Quarter milk Hp had a range of <0.4-420 μg/ml with a median value of 3.6 μg/ml, with 92 % of samples below 20 μg/ml.

Conclusion: Baseline values of Hp, M-SAA3 and CRP were established in composite milk from cows with normal SCC on the dairy farm. Parity was recognized as a possible confounding factor when diagnosing mastitis using Hp. The value of the APP, Hp, M-SAA3 and CRP as substitutes or to complement SCC in indicating udder inflammation, was demonstrated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus