Limits...
Frontal facial proportions of 12-year-old southern Chinese: a photogrammetric study.

Yeung CY, McGrath CP, Wong RW, Hägg EU, Lo J, Yang Y - Head Face Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Gender differences in 11 of the facial proportion indices were evident (P < 0.05).Upper face-face height (N- Sto/ N- Gn), vermilion height (Ls-Sto/Sto-Li), upper face height-biocular width (N-Sto/ExR-ExL) and nose -face height (N-Sn/N-Gn) indices were found to be larger among girls (P < 0.01).Males had larger lower face-face height (Sn -Gn/ N-Gn), mandibulo-face height (Sto-Gn/N-Gn), mandibulo-upper face height (Sto-Gn/N-Sto), nasal (AlR-AlL/N-Sn), upper lip height-mouth width (Sn-Sto/ChR-ChL), upper lip-upper face height (Sn-Sto/N-Sto) and upper lip-nose height (Sn-Sto/N-Sn) indices (P < 0.05).Population norm of facial proportion indices for 12-year-old Southern Chinese were derived and mean lower facial proportion were obtained.Sexual dimorphism is apparent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. mryeungcharles@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to establish norm values for facial proportion indices among 12-year-old southern Chinese children, to determine lower facial proportion, and to identify gender differences in facial proportions.A random population sample of 514 children was recruited. Fifteen facial landmarks were plotted with ImageJ (V1.45) on standardized photos and 22 Facial proportion index values were obtained. Gender differences were analyzed by 2-sample t-test with 95% confidence interval. Repeated measurements were conducted on approximately 10% of the cases.The rate of adopted subjects was 52.5% (270/514). Intraclass correlation coefficient values (ICC) for intra- examiner reliability were >0.87. Population facial proportion index values were derived. Gender differences in 11 of the facial proportion indices were evident (P < 0.05).Upper face-face height (N- Sto/ N- Gn), vermilion height (Ls-Sto/Sto-Li), upper face height-biocular width (N-Sto/ExR-ExL) and nose -face height (N-Sn/N-Gn) indices were found to be larger among girls (P < 0.01). Males had larger lower face-face height (Sn -Gn/ N-Gn), mandibulo-face height (Sto-Gn/N-Gn), mandibulo-upper face height (Sto-Gn/N-Sto), nasal (AlR-AlL/N-Sn), upper lip height-mouth width (Sn-Sto/ChR-ChL), upper lip-upper face height (Sn-Sto/N-Sto) and upper lip-nose height (Sn-Sto/N-Sn) indices (P < 0.05).Population norm of facial proportion indices for 12-year-old Southern Chinese were derived and mean lower facial proportion were obtained. Sexual dimorphism is apparent.

No MeSH data available.


Landmarks and proportional indices identified and measured. N : Nasion; Ex (R,L) : Exocanthion (Right, Left); En (R,L) : Endocanthion (Right, Left); Al (R,L) : Alare (Right, Left); Sn : Subnasale; Ls : Labiale superius; Sto : Stomion; Li : Labiale inferius; Ch (R,L) : Cheilion (Right, Left); Sl : Sublabiale; Gn : Gnathion. N.B. The subject of this photograph is not a subject in the study, the photograph is for illustration purpose and consent was obtained
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4536598&req=5

Fig1: Landmarks and proportional indices identified and measured. N : Nasion; Ex (R,L) : Exocanthion (Right, Left); En (R,L) : Endocanthion (Right, Left); Al (R,L) : Alare (Right, Left); Sn : Subnasale; Ls : Labiale superius; Sto : Stomion; Li : Labiale inferius; Ch (R,L) : Cheilion (Right, Left); Sl : Sublabiale; Gn : Gnathion. N.B. The subject of this photograph is not a subject in the study, the photograph is for illustration purpose and consent was obtained

Mentions: A scale backdrop of 1 cm increments with a plumbline was set up for a camera-subject distance of around 170 cm. The camera used was Canon EOS 400D (Canon, Shimomaruko, Ohta-ku, Tokyo, Japan) with Canon EF-S 60 mm f/2.8 Macro USM Lens and Canon MR-14EX TTL Macro Ring Lite Flash. Subjects were first instructed to a stand with their eyes looking forward to a vertically standing mirror on the side for a natural head posture and then turn their whole body 90° to face the camera with the lip relax. Glasses or other accessories which may obstruct the face were taken away beforehand. The photo was then taken in natural head posture [18].


Frontal facial proportions of 12-year-old southern Chinese: a photogrammetric study.

Yeung CY, McGrath CP, Wong RW, Hägg EU, Lo J, Yang Y - Head Face Med (2015)

Landmarks and proportional indices identified and measured. N : Nasion; Ex (R,L) : Exocanthion (Right, Left); En (R,L) : Endocanthion (Right, Left); Al (R,L) : Alare (Right, Left); Sn : Subnasale; Ls : Labiale superius; Sto : Stomion; Li : Labiale inferius; Ch (R,L) : Cheilion (Right, Left); Sl : Sublabiale; Gn : Gnathion. N.B. The subject of this photograph is not a subject in the study, the photograph is for illustration purpose and consent was obtained
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4536598&req=5

Fig1: Landmarks and proportional indices identified and measured. N : Nasion; Ex (R,L) : Exocanthion (Right, Left); En (R,L) : Endocanthion (Right, Left); Al (R,L) : Alare (Right, Left); Sn : Subnasale; Ls : Labiale superius; Sto : Stomion; Li : Labiale inferius; Ch (R,L) : Cheilion (Right, Left); Sl : Sublabiale; Gn : Gnathion. N.B. The subject of this photograph is not a subject in the study, the photograph is for illustration purpose and consent was obtained
Mentions: A scale backdrop of 1 cm increments with a plumbline was set up for a camera-subject distance of around 170 cm. The camera used was Canon EOS 400D (Canon, Shimomaruko, Ohta-ku, Tokyo, Japan) with Canon EF-S 60 mm f/2.8 Macro USM Lens and Canon MR-14EX TTL Macro Ring Lite Flash. Subjects were first instructed to a stand with their eyes looking forward to a vertically standing mirror on the side for a natural head posture and then turn their whole body 90° to face the camera with the lip relax. Glasses or other accessories which may obstruct the face were taken away beforehand. The photo was then taken in natural head posture [18].

Bottom Line: Gender differences in 11 of the facial proportion indices were evident (P < 0.05).Upper face-face height (N- Sto/ N- Gn), vermilion height (Ls-Sto/Sto-Li), upper face height-biocular width (N-Sto/ExR-ExL) and nose -face height (N-Sn/N-Gn) indices were found to be larger among girls (P < 0.01).Males had larger lower face-face height (Sn -Gn/ N-Gn), mandibulo-face height (Sto-Gn/N-Gn), mandibulo-upper face height (Sto-Gn/N-Sto), nasal (AlR-AlL/N-Sn), upper lip height-mouth width (Sn-Sto/ChR-ChL), upper lip-upper face height (Sn-Sto/N-Sto) and upper lip-nose height (Sn-Sto/N-Sn) indices (P < 0.05).Population norm of facial proportion indices for 12-year-old Southern Chinese were derived and mean lower facial proportion were obtained.Sexual dimorphism is apparent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. mryeungcharles@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to establish norm values for facial proportion indices among 12-year-old southern Chinese children, to determine lower facial proportion, and to identify gender differences in facial proportions.A random population sample of 514 children was recruited. Fifteen facial landmarks were plotted with ImageJ (V1.45) on standardized photos and 22 Facial proportion index values were obtained. Gender differences were analyzed by 2-sample t-test with 95% confidence interval. Repeated measurements were conducted on approximately 10% of the cases.The rate of adopted subjects was 52.5% (270/514). Intraclass correlation coefficient values (ICC) for intra- examiner reliability were >0.87. Population facial proportion index values were derived. Gender differences in 11 of the facial proportion indices were evident (P < 0.05).Upper face-face height (N- Sto/ N- Gn), vermilion height (Ls-Sto/Sto-Li), upper face height-biocular width (N-Sto/ExR-ExL) and nose -face height (N-Sn/N-Gn) indices were found to be larger among girls (P < 0.01). Males had larger lower face-face height (Sn -Gn/ N-Gn), mandibulo-face height (Sto-Gn/N-Gn), mandibulo-upper face height (Sto-Gn/N-Sto), nasal (AlR-AlL/N-Sn), upper lip height-mouth width (Sn-Sto/ChR-ChL), upper lip-upper face height (Sn-Sto/N-Sto) and upper lip-nose height (Sn-Sto/N-Sn) indices (P < 0.05).Population norm of facial proportion indices for 12-year-old Southern Chinese were derived and mean lower facial proportion were obtained. Sexual dimorphism is apparent.

No MeSH data available.