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Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections.

Domm W, Misra RS, O'Reilly MA - Front Med (Lausanne) (2015)

Bottom Line: Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity.Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense.This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Rochester , Rochester, NY , USA ; Department of Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Rochester , Rochester, NY , USA.

ABSTRACT
Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The oxygen environment at birth affects the severity of respiratory viral infection later in life. Hypothetical graph depicting how exposure to low or high inspired oxygen at birth can increase respiratory morbidity following a respiratory viral infection.
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Figure 4: The oxygen environment at birth affects the severity of respiratory viral infection later in life. Hypothetical graph depicting how exposure to low or high inspired oxygen at birth can increase respiratory morbidity following a respiratory viral infection.

Mentions: This Goldilocks effect of oxygen reflects the convergence of an oxygen environment on genes present at birth, some of which have fixated changes that maintain the response to hypoxia even at sea level. Genetic changes that influence the response to high oxygen used to treat preterm infants have yet to be identified, perhaps because there is no evolutionary pressure or memory for adapting to hyperoxia. However, recognizing that the response to oxygen is non-linear, studying adaptation to low oxygen may help us understand adaptation to high oxygen (Figure 4).


Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections.

Domm W, Misra RS, O'Reilly MA - Front Med (Lausanne) (2015)

The oxygen environment at birth affects the severity of respiratory viral infection later in life. Hypothetical graph depicting how exposure to low or high inspired oxygen at birth can increase respiratory morbidity following a respiratory viral infection.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4530667&req=5

Figure 4: The oxygen environment at birth affects the severity of respiratory viral infection later in life. Hypothetical graph depicting how exposure to low or high inspired oxygen at birth can increase respiratory morbidity following a respiratory viral infection.
Mentions: This Goldilocks effect of oxygen reflects the convergence of an oxygen environment on genes present at birth, some of which have fixated changes that maintain the response to hypoxia even at sea level. Genetic changes that influence the response to high oxygen used to treat preterm infants have yet to be identified, perhaps because there is no evolutionary pressure or memory for adapting to hyperoxia. However, recognizing that the response to oxygen is non-linear, studying adaptation to low oxygen may help us understand adaptation to high oxygen (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity.Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense.This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Rochester , Rochester, NY , USA ; Department of Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Rochester , Rochester, NY , USA.

ABSTRACT
Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus