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Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

Chowdhury EA, Richardson JD, Tsintzas K, Thompson D, Betts JA - Br. J. Nutr. (2015)

Bottom Line: In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later.Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon.The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department for Health,University of Bath,BathBA2 7AY,UK.

ABSTRACT
Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Appetite score during trials. B, breakfast period, in which participants ate a prescribed breakfast during the breakfast trial and rested during the morning fasting trial. L, ad libitum pasta lunch. n 34, as one individual was not provided with hedonic scales on one of their trials. Values are means with their normalised CI represented by vertical bars. * Mean value was significantly different from the corresponding time point in other trial (P< 0·01). –▲–, Breakfast; –○–, fasting.
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fig4: Appetite score during trials. B, breakfast period, in which participants ate a prescribed breakfast during the breakfast trial and rested during the morning fasting trial. L, ad libitum pasta lunch. n 34, as one individual was not provided with hedonic scales on one of their trials. Values are means with their normalised CI represented by vertical bars. * Mean value was significantly different from the corresponding time point in other trial (P< 0·01). –▲–, Breakfast; –○–, fasting.

Mentions: The composite appetite score combining the hedonics obtained is displayed in Fig. 4. Desire to eat, hunger and prospective consumption all followed very similar patterns throughout the day. Immediately after breakfast consumption, there was a reduction in all three measures such that there were significant differences between all three measures compared with the morning fasting trial (all P <0·01, data not shown). Immediately prior to lunch, these appetite sensations remained greater in the morning fasting than in the breakfast trial (all P <0·01). Following the consumption of the ad libitum lunch, all three measures decreased to a nadir with no significant difference between trials (all P>0·4). Three hours after completion of lunch, there was no difference between trials for any of the measures (all P≥ 0·1). The sensations of fullness followed a similar, but opposite, pattern throughout the day, with fullness significantly greater after breakfast and prior to lunch in the breakfast trial (both P< 0·01) but not different between trials at any other time point (all P>0·2).Fig. 4


Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

Chowdhury EA, Richardson JD, Tsintzas K, Thompson D, Betts JA - Br. J. Nutr. (2015)

Appetite score during trials. B, breakfast period, in which participants ate a prescribed breakfast during the breakfast trial and rested during the morning fasting trial. L, ad libitum pasta lunch. n 34, as one individual was not provided with hedonic scales on one of their trials. Values are means with their normalised CI represented by vertical bars. * Mean value was significantly different from the corresponding time point in other trial (P< 0·01). –▲–, Breakfast; –○–, fasting.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4530602&req=5

fig4: Appetite score during trials. B, breakfast period, in which participants ate a prescribed breakfast during the breakfast trial and rested during the morning fasting trial. L, ad libitum pasta lunch. n 34, as one individual was not provided with hedonic scales on one of their trials. Values are means with their normalised CI represented by vertical bars. * Mean value was significantly different from the corresponding time point in other trial (P< 0·01). –▲–, Breakfast; –○–, fasting.
Mentions: The composite appetite score combining the hedonics obtained is displayed in Fig. 4. Desire to eat, hunger and prospective consumption all followed very similar patterns throughout the day. Immediately after breakfast consumption, there was a reduction in all three measures such that there were significant differences between all three measures compared with the morning fasting trial (all P <0·01, data not shown). Immediately prior to lunch, these appetite sensations remained greater in the morning fasting than in the breakfast trial (all P <0·01). Following the consumption of the ad libitum lunch, all three measures decreased to a nadir with no significant difference between trials (all P>0·4). Three hours after completion of lunch, there was no difference between trials for any of the measures (all P≥ 0·1). The sensations of fullness followed a similar, but opposite, pattern throughout the day, with fullness significantly greater after breakfast and prior to lunch in the breakfast trial (both P< 0·01) but not different between trials at any other time point (all P>0·2).Fig. 4

Bottom Line: In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later.Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon.The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department for Health,University of Bath,BathBA2 7AY,UK.

ABSTRACT
Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus