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Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

Chowdhury EA, Richardson JD, Tsintzas K, Thompson D, Betts JA - Br. J. Nutr. (2015)

Bottom Line: In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later.Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon.The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department for Health,University of Bath,BathBA2 7AY,UK.

ABSTRACT
Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Hormonal responses during trials. (a) Plasma acylated and total ghrelin (n 32), (b) plasma peptide tyrosine–tyrosine (PYY, n 32), (c) plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, n 32), (d) serum leptin (n 32), where missing data are due to insufficient blood for analysis. Values are means with their normalised CI represented by vertical bars. * Mean value was significantly different from the corresponding time point in other trial (P< 0·05). B, breakfast period, in which participants ate a prescribed breakfast during the breakfast trial and rested during the morning fasting trial. L, ad libitum pasta lunch. –▲–, Breakfast; –○–, fasting.
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fig3: Hormonal responses during trials. (a) Plasma acylated and total ghrelin (n 32), (b) plasma peptide tyrosine–tyrosine (PYY, n 32), (c) plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, n 32), (d) serum leptin (n 32), where missing data are due to insufficient blood for analysis. Values are means with their normalised CI represented by vertical bars. * Mean value was significantly different from the corresponding time point in other trial (P< 0·05). B, breakfast period, in which participants ate a prescribed breakfast during the breakfast trial and rested during the morning fasting trial. L, ad libitum pasta lunch. –▲–, Breakfast; –○–, fasting.

Mentions: There were main effects of time and a trial × time interaction for plasma acylated ghrelin (both P <0·01). Breakfast consumption suppressed acylated ghrelin concentrations such that these were significantly lower 1 and 2 h post-breakfast relative to the morning fasting trial (both P <0·01, Fig. 3(a)), but there was no difference between trials 3 h post-breakfast. Acylated ghrelin concentrations were significantly greater than in the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon in the breakfast trial (all P <0·01).Fig. 3


Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

Chowdhury EA, Richardson JD, Tsintzas K, Thompson D, Betts JA - Br. J. Nutr. (2015)

Hormonal responses during trials. (a) Plasma acylated and total ghrelin (n 32), (b) plasma peptide tyrosine–tyrosine (PYY, n 32), (c) plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, n 32), (d) serum leptin (n 32), where missing data are due to insufficient blood for analysis. Values are means with their normalised CI represented by vertical bars. * Mean value was significantly different from the corresponding time point in other trial (P< 0·05). B, breakfast period, in which participants ate a prescribed breakfast during the breakfast trial and rested during the morning fasting trial. L, ad libitum pasta lunch. –▲–, Breakfast; –○–, fasting.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4530602&req=5

fig3: Hormonal responses during trials. (a) Plasma acylated and total ghrelin (n 32), (b) plasma peptide tyrosine–tyrosine (PYY, n 32), (c) plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, n 32), (d) serum leptin (n 32), where missing data are due to insufficient blood for analysis. Values are means with their normalised CI represented by vertical bars. * Mean value was significantly different from the corresponding time point in other trial (P< 0·05). B, breakfast period, in which participants ate a prescribed breakfast during the breakfast trial and rested during the morning fasting trial. L, ad libitum pasta lunch. –▲–, Breakfast; –○–, fasting.
Mentions: There were main effects of time and a trial × time interaction for plasma acylated ghrelin (both P <0·01). Breakfast consumption suppressed acylated ghrelin concentrations such that these were significantly lower 1 and 2 h post-breakfast relative to the morning fasting trial (both P <0·01, Fig. 3(a)), but there was no difference between trials 3 h post-breakfast. Acylated ghrelin concentrations were significantly greater than in the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon in the breakfast trial (all P <0·01).Fig. 3

Bottom Line: In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later.Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon.The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department for Health,University of Bath,BathBA2 7AY,UK.

ABSTRACT
Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus