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XRIndex: a brief screening tool for individual differences in security threat detection in x-ray images.

Rusconi E, Ferri F, Viding E, Mitchener-Nissen T - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy.The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits.Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London London, UK ; Department of Neurosciences, University of Parma Parma, Italy ; Division of Psychology, Abertay University Dundee, UK.

ABSTRACT
X-ray imaging is a cost-effective technique at security checkpoints that typically require the presence of human operators. We have previously shown that self-reported attention to detail can predict threat detection performance with small-vehicle x-ray images (Rusconi et al., 2012). Here, we provide evidence for the generality of such a link by having a large sample of naïve participants screen more typical dual-energy x-ray images of hand luggage. The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy. We then develop and fine-tune a novel self-report scale for security screening: the XRIndex, which improves on the Attention to Detail scale for predictive power and opacity to interpretation. The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits. We validate the XRIndex against security x-ray images with an independent sample of untrained participants and suggest that the XRIndex may be a useful aid for the identification of suitable candidates for professional security training with a focus on x-ray threat detection. Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The left hand panel shows a histogram of the distribution of scores for the XRIndex in 620 participants. The right hand panel shows the Normal Q-Q plot of the XRIndex distribution, which in its central part essentially overlaps with the normal distribution.
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Figure 5: The left hand panel shows a histogram of the distribution of scores for the XRIndex in 620 participants. The right hand panel shows the Normal Q-Q plot of the XRIndex distribution, which in its central part essentially overlaps with the normal distribution.

Mentions: The median XRIndex score was 0 (IQR = 5), and the mean was 0.45 (SD = 4). Skewness and Kurtosis of the XRIndex distribution were very close to 0 (Skewness = 0.70, SE = 0.10; Kurtosis = −0.12, SE = 0.20) and the Q-Q plot showed a reasonable fit of the data with the ideal normal distribution, especially for the central scores (see Figure 5). The XRIndex scale showed good reliability, with a Cronbach’s α of 0.70. Participants obtained a median score of 13 (IQR = 5) in the Regularities subscale and a median score of 13 in the Memory (IQR = 4) subscale. A small/moderate correlation between Regularities and Memory was found and remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons (ρ = 0.21, p < 0.001). In relation to personality traits, the only significant correlation between the XRIndex and the Big Five scores was a small negative correlation with Extraversion (ρ = −0.12, p = 0.002), which points to non-redundancy between the XRIndex and the Big Five.


XRIndex: a brief screening tool for individual differences in security threat detection in x-ray images.

Rusconi E, Ferri F, Viding E, Mitchener-Nissen T - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

The left hand panel shows a histogram of the distribution of scores for the XRIndex in 620 participants. The right hand panel shows the Normal Q-Q plot of the XRIndex distribution, which in its central part essentially overlaps with the normal distribution.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4530599&req=5

Figure 5: The left hand panel shows a histogram of the distribution of scores for the XRIndex in 620 participants. The right hand panel shows the Normal Q-Q plot of the XRIndex distribution, which in its central part essentially overlaps with the normal distribution.
Mentions: The median XRIndex score was 0 (IQR = 5), and the mean was 0.45 (SD = 4). Skewness and Kurtosis of the XRIndex distribution were very close to 0 (Skewness = 0.70, SE = 0.10; Kurtosis = −0.12, SE = 0.20) and the Q-Q plot showed a reasonable fit of the data with the ideal normal distribution, especially for the central scores (see Figure 5). The XRIndex scale showed good reliability, with a Cronbach’s α of 0.70. Participants obtained a median score of 13 (IQR = 5) in the Regularities subscale and a median score of 13 in the Memory (IQR = 4) subscale. A small/moderate correlation between Regularities and Memory was found and remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons (ρ = 0.21, p < 0.001). In relation to personality traits, the only significant correlation between the XRIndex and the Big Five scores was a small negative correlation with Extraversion (ρ = −0.12, p = 0.002), which points to non-redundancy between the XRIndex and the Big Five.

Bottom Line: The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy.The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits.Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London London, UK ; Department of Neurosciences, University of Parma Parma, Italy ; Division of Psychology, Abertay University Dundee, UK.

ABSTRACT
X-ray imaging is a cost-effective technique at security checkpoints that typically require the presence of human operators. We have previously shown that self-reported attention to detail can predict threat detection performance with small-vehicle x-ray images (Rusconi et al., 2012). Here, we provide evidence for the generality of such a link by having a large sample of naïve participants screen more typical dual-energy x-ray images of hand luggage. The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy. We then develop and fine-tune a novel self-report scale for security screening: the XRIndex, which improves on the Attention to Detail scale for predictive power and opacity to interpretation. The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits. We validate the XRIndex against security x-ray images with an independent sample of untrained participants and suggest that the XRIndex may be a useful aid for the identification of suitable candidates for professional security training with a focus on x-ray threat detection. Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus