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XRIndex: a brief screening tool for individual differences in security threat detection in x-ray images.

Rusconi E, Ferri F, Viding E, Mitchener-Nissen T - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy.The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits.Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London London, UK ; Department of Neurosciences, University of Parma Parma, Italy ; Division of Psychology, Abertay University Dundee, UK.

ABSTRACT
X-ray imaging is a cost-effective technique at security checkpoints that typically require the presence of human operators. We have previously shown that self-reported attention to detail can predict threat detection performance with small-vehicle x-ray images (Rusconi et al., 2012). Here, we provide evidence for the generality of such a link by having a large sample of naïve participants screen more typical dual-energy x-ray images of hand luggage. The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy. We then develop and fine-tune a novel self-report scale for security screening: the XRIndex, which improves on the Attention to Detail scale for predictive power and opacity to interpretation. The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits. We validate the XRIndex against security x-ray images with an independent sample of untrained participants and suggest that the XRIndex may be a useful aid for the identification of suitable candidates for professional security training with a focus on x-ray threat detection. Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Example threat display presented in the familiarization phase of the x-ray screening task.
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Figure 2: Example threat display presented in the familiarization phase of the x-ray screening task.

Mentions: The x-ray screening task comprised two phases: a familiarization phase and a threat detection phase. The threat detection phase entailed a few training trials, followed by test trials. When accessing the x-ray screening task participants were advised they would first be shown images of three groups of threats (see e.g., Figure 2). They were encouraged to try and memorize those threats because they would later be asked to detect their presence in x-rayed bags. It was also made clear that the threats would not necessarily be seen from the same viewpoint as in the familiarization phase. Images showing three collections of x-rayed threats (bullets, a gas grenade and a folding knife; several handguns; different types of knives) were displayed twice for 6 s each in alternated sequence. Six threat-detection practice trials (three bags with a threat, three bags without, in random order) followed the familiarization phase.


XRIndex: a brief screening tool for individual differences in security threat detection in x-ray images.

Rusconi E, Ferri F, Viding E, Mitchener-Nissen T - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Example threat display presented in the familiarization phase of the x-ray screening task.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4530599&req=5

Figure 2: Example threat display presented in the familiarization phase of the x-ray screening task.
Mentions: The x-ray screening task comprised two phases: a familiarization phase and a threat detection phase. The threat detection phase entailed a few training trials, followed by test trials. When accessing the x-ray screening task participants were advised they would first be shown images of three groups of threats (see e.g., Figure 2). They were encouraged to try and memorize those threats because they would later be asked to detect their presence in x-rayed bags. It was also made clear that the threats would not necessarily be seen from the same viewpoint as in the familiarization phase. Images showing three collections of x-rayed threats (bullets, a gas grenade and a folding knife; several handguns; different types of knives) were displayed twice for 6 s each in alternated sequence. Six threat-detection practice trials (three bags with a threat, three bags without, in random order) followed the familiarization phase.

Bottom Line: The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy.The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits.Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London London, UK ; Department of Neurosciences, University of Parma Parma, Italy ; Division of Psychology, Abertay University Dundee, UK.

ABSTRACT
X-ray imaging is a cost-effective technique at security checkpoints that typically require the presence of human operators. We have previously shown that self-reported attention to detail can predict threat detection performance with small-vehicle x-ray images (Rusconi et al., 2012). Here, we provide evidence for the generality of such a link by having a large sample of naïve participants screen more typical dual-energy x-ray images of hand luggage. The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy. We then develop and fine-tune a novel self-report scale for security screening: the XRIndex, which improves on the Attention to Detail scale for predictive power and opacity to interpretation. The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits. We validate the XRIndex against security x-ray images with an independent sample of untrained participants and suggest that the XRIndex may be a useful aid for the identification of suitable candidates for professional security training with a focus on x-ray threat detection. Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus