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XRIndex: a brief screening tool for individual differences in security threat detection in x-ray images.

Rusconi E, Ferri F, Viding E, Mitchener-Nissen T - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy.The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits.Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London London, UK ; Department of Neurosciences, University of Parma Parma, Italy ; Division of Psychology, Abertay University Dundee, UK.

ABSTRACT
X-ray imaging is a cost-effective technique at security checkpoints that typically require the presence of human operators. We have previously shown that self-reported attention to detail can predict threat detection performance with small-vehicle x-ray images (Rusconi et al., 2012). Here, we provide evidence for the generality of such a link by having a large sample of naïve participants screen more typical dual-energy x-ray images of hand luggage. The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy. We then develop and fine-tune a novel self-report scale for security screening: the XRIndex, which improves on the Attention to Detail scale for predictive power and opacity to interpretation. The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits. We validate the XRIndex against security x-ray images with an independent sample of untrained participants and suggest that the XRIndex may be a useful aid for the identification of suitable candidates for professional security training with a focus on x-ray threat detection. Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Example of the x-ray images used in the x-ray screening task. The red circle locates the threat for demonstrative purposes. It was shown in the feedback displays of the practice trials but did not appear in the experiment.
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Figure 1: Example of the x-ray images used in the x-ray screening task. The red circle locates the threat for demonstrative purposes. It was shown in the feedback displays of the practice trials but did not appear in the experiment.

Mentions: From an initial database of 100 images, 15 pairs were selected. Each pair showed the same bag with/without a threat (see an example in Figure 1). A further 15 pairs were obtained by mirroring those images around their vertical and then their horizontal meridian. This introduced a balance in the spatial location of visual clusters, by ensuring that in the overall set of 60 images (i.e., 30 pairs of threat/no-threat bags) a threat—and any other object—appeared with the same likelihood in the opposite halves with respect to the vertical and the horizontal meridians. During the x-ray screening task, the images—which had a white background—were inscribed in a 600 × 600 pixel central square, whereas the rest of the display was black.


XRIndex: a brief screening tool for individual differences in security threat detection in x-ray images.

Rusconi E, Ferri F, Viding E, Mitchener-Nissen T - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Example of the x-ray images used in the x-ray screening task. The red circle locates the threat for demonstrative purposes. It was shown in the feedback displays of the practice trials but did not appear in the experiment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4530599&req=5

Figure 1: Example of the x-ray images used in the x-ray screening task. The red circle locates the threat for demonstrative purposes. It was shown in the feedback displays of the practice trials but did not appear in the experiment.
Mentions: From an initial database of 100 images, 15 pairs were selected. Each pair showed the same bag with/without a threat (see an example in Figure 1). A further 15 pairs were obtained by mirroring those images around their vertical and then their horizontal meridian. This introduced a balance in the spatial location of visual clusters, by ensuring that in the overall set of 60 images (i.e., 30 pairs of threat/no-threat bags) a threat—and any other object—appeared with the same likelihood in the opposite halves with respect to the vertical and the horizontal meridians. During the x-ray screening task, the images—which had a white background—were inscribed in a 600 × 600 pixel central square, whereas the rest of the display was black.

Bottom Line: The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy.The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits.Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London London, UK ; Department of Neurosciences, University of Parma Parma, Italy ; Division of Psychology, Abertay University Dundee, UK.

ABSTRACT
X-ray imaging is a cost-effective technique at security checkpoints that typically require the presence of human operators. We have previously shown that self-reported attention to detail can predict threat detection performance with small-vehicle x-ray images (Rusconi et al., 2012). Here, we provide evidence for the generality of such a link by having a large sample of naïve participants screen more typical dual-energy x-ray images of hand luggage. The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy. We then develop and fine-tune a novel self-report scale for security screening: the XRIndex, which improves on the Attention to Detail scale for predictive power and opacity to interpretation. The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits. We validate the XRIndex against security x-ray images with an independent sample of untrained participants and suggest that the XRIndex may be a useful aid for the identification of suitable candidates for professional security training with a focus on x-ray threat detection. Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus