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The role of chitin, chitinases, and chitinase-like proteins in pediatric lung diseases.

Mack I, Hector A, Ballbach M, Kohlhäufl J, Fuchs KJ, Weber A, Mall MA, Hartl D - Mol Cell Pediatr (2015)

Bottom Line: Lower life forms are endowed with chitinases to defend themselves against chitin-bearing pathogens.Unexpectedly, humans were also found to express chitinases as well as chitinase-like proteins that modulate immune responses.Here, we summarize and discuss the potential role of chitin, chitinases, and chitinase-like proteins in pediatric lung diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics/UKBB, University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, 4003, Basel, Switzerland. ines.mack@ukbb.ch.

ABSTRACT
Chitin, after cellulose, the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, is a key component of insects, fungi, and house-dust mites. Lower life forms are endowed with chitinases to defend themselves against chitin-bearing pathogens. Unexpectedly, humans were also found to express chitinases as well as chitinase-like proteins that modulate immune responses. Particularly, increased levels of the chitinase-like protein YKL-40 have been associated with severe asthma, cystic fibrosis, and other inflammatory disease conditions. Here, we summarize and discuss the potential role of chitin, chitinases, and chitinase-like proteins in pediatric lung diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The proposed role of chitin, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins (CLPs) in lung diseases. Chitin is a common component of allergy-triggering environmental components, including fungal spores and house-dust mites, which trigger an innate immune response, including chitinases (cleaving chitin; scissors) and chitinase-like proteins (binding, but not cleaving chitin; damaged scissors). Chitinases and chitinase-like proteins are mainly secreted by neutrophils, alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) and epithelial cells. The interplay of M2 macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells drives inflammation and remodeling in chronic lung diseases, particularly asthma, cystic fibrosis, and COPD.
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Fig1: The proposed role of chitin, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins (CLPs) in lung diseases. Chitin is a common component of allergy-triggering environmental components, including fungal spores and house-dust mites, which trigger an innate immune response, including chitinases (cleaving chitin; scissors) and chitinase-like proteins (binding, but not cleaving chitin; damaged scissors). Chitinases and chitinase-like proteins are mainly secreted by neutrophils, alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) and epithelial cells. The interplay of M2 macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells drives inflammation and remodeling in chronic lung diseases, particularly asthma, cystic fibrosis, and COPD.

Mentions: The role of chitin and chitinases has been firmly established in the field of plant and microbial immunity by demonstrating that host-derived chitinases cleave chitin to protect against invading chitin-bearing pathogens, such as fungi. Although mammals lack endogenous chitin or chitin synthases, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins are endogenously expressed in their lung and other organs. Particularly, chitinase-like proteins have been described as dysregulated in a variety of diseases characterized by chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling, yet their potential role for humans has just recently begun to evolve [1,2]. Chitin is a major component of a variety of allergy-triggering environmental components, including house-dust mites or fungal spores, and fungal asthma is increasingly appreciated as an under-diagnosed disease entity [3]. Thus, an understanding of the complex immunological and pathophysiological implications of chitin-chitinase interactions in the human body is of high relevance for identifying new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for fungal diseases and other conditions, where chitin-coated microbial derivatives play a critical role. Here, we provide an overview of an emerging, yet complex field of research. Of particular interest are interspecies differences with resulting specific nomenclatures. Subsequent to an overall introduction of chitin, the role of chitinases and chitinase-like proteins in pediatric lung diseases are reviewed, leading up to a summary of ideas how these mechanisms could be exploited to improve diagnostics and therapeutics in lung diseases in childhood and beyond (Figure 1).Figure 1


The role of chitin, chitinases, and chitinase-like proteins in pediatric lung diseases.

Mack I, Hector A, Ballbach M, Kohlhäufl J, Fuchs KJ, Weber A, Mall MA, Hartl D - Mol Cell Pediatr (2015)

The proposed role of chitin, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins (CLPs) in lung diseases. Chitin is a common component of allergy-triggering environmental components, including fungal spores and house-dust mites, which trigger an innate immune response, including chitinases (cleaving chitin; scissors) and chitinase-like proteins (binding, but not cleaving chitin; damaged scissors). Chitinases and chitinase-like proteins are mainly secreted by neutrophils, alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) and epithelial cells. The interplay of M2 macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells drives inflammation and remodeling in chronic lung diseases, particularly asthma, cystic fibrosis, and COPD.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4530573&req=5

Fig1: The proposed role of chitin, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins (CLPs) in lung diseases. Chitin is a common component of allergy-triggering environmental components, including fungal spores and house-dust mites, which trigger an innate immune response, including chitinases (cleaving chitin; scissors) and chitinase-like proteins (binding, but not cleaving chitin; damaged scissors). Chitinases and chitinase-like proteins are mainly secreted by neutrophils, alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) and epithelial cells. The interplay of M2 macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells drives inflammation and remodeling in chronic lung diseases, particularly asthma, cystic fibrosis, and COPD.
Mentions: The role of chitin and chitinases has been firmly established in the field of plant and microbial immunity by demonstrating that host-derived chitinases cleave chitin to protect against invading chitin-bearing pathogens, such as fungi. Although mammals lack endogenous chitin or chitin synthases, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins are endogenously expressed in their lung and other organs. Particularly, chitinase-like proteins have been described as dysregulated in a variety of diseases characterized by chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling, yet their potential role for humans has just recently begun to evolve [1,2]. Chitin is a major component of a variety of allergy-triggering environmental components, including house-dust mites or fungal spores, and fungal asthma is increasingly appreciated as an under-diagnosed disease entity [3]. Thus, an understanding of the complex immunological and pathophysiological implications of chitin-chitinase interactions in the human body is of high relevance for identifying new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for fungal diseases and other conditions, where chitin-coated microbial derivatives play a critical role. Here, we provide an overview of an emerging, yet complex field of research. Of particular interest are interspecies differences with resulting specific nomenclatures. Subsequent to an overall introduction of chitin, the role of chitinases and chitinase-like proteins in pediatric lung diseases are reviewed, leading up to a summary of ideas how these mechanisms could be exploited to improve diagnostics and therapeutics in lung diseases in childhood and beyond (Figure 1).Figure 1

Bottom Line: Lower life forms are endowed with chitinases to defend themselves against chitin-bearing pathogens.Unexpectedly, humans were also found to express chitinases as well as chitinase-like proteins that modulate immune responses.Here, we summarize and discuss the potential role of chitin, chitinases, and chitinase-like proteins in pediatric lung diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics/UKBB, University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, 4003, Basel, Switzerland. ines.mack@ukbb.ch.

ABSTRACT
Chitin, after cellulose, the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, is a key component of insects, fungi, and house-dust mites. Lower life forms are endowed with chitinases to defend themselves against chitin-bearing pathogens. Unexpectedly, humans were also found to express chitinases as well as chitinase-like proteins that modulate immune responses. Particularly, increased levels of the chitinase-like protein YKL-40 have been associated with severe asthma, cystic fibrosis, and other inflammatory disease conditions. Here, we summarize and discuss the potential role of chitin, chitinases, and chitinase-like proteins in pediatric lung diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus