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Population Structure of and Conservation Strategies for Wild Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. in China.

Wuyun T, Amo H, Xu J, Ma T, Uematsu C, Katayama H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: These values are relatively high when compared to those of other tree species.We determined 4 conservation units based on the clustering by nSSRs and cpSSRs, and geographic factor.This information is helpful in deciding the conservation strategies for wild Ussurian pear in China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Paulownia Research and Development Center of China, Non-timber Forestry Research and Development of CAF, Weiwu Road, Zhengzhou City 450003, China.

ABSTRACT
Pyrus ussriensis Maxim. is native to the northern part of China, but whose habitats are currently being destroyed by environmental changes and human deforestation. An investigation of population structure and genetic diversity of wild Ussurian pear is a priority in order to acquire fundamental knowledge for conservation. A total of 153 individuals of wild Ussurian pear from the main habitats, Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia in China, possessed low genetic diversity as a result of habitat fragmentation. The genetic diversity of the populations in Inner Mongolia and north east of Heilongjiang was especially low and there was the possibility of inbreeding. Wild Ussurian pears were divided into 5 groups based on the Bayesian clustering method using 20 nuclear SSRs (nSSRs) and 5 groups by haplotype distributions using 16 chloroplast SSRs (cpSSRs), and the populations in Inner Mongolia and north east of Heilongjiang represented unique genotypes. AMOVA indicated there was a 20.05% variation in nSSRs and a 44.40% variation in cpSSRs among populations. These values are relatively high when compared to those of other tree species. Haplotype E, positioned in the center of the cpSSR analysis network and showed the largest number of connections with other haplotypes, represented the most important haplotype. Inner Mongolia and the north east of Heilongjiang are two areas that need urgent conservation because of their genetic vulnerability and peculiarity. We determined 4 conservation units based on the clustering by nSSRs and cpSSRs, and geographic factor. This information is helpful in deciding the conservation strategies for wild Ussurian pear in China.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a): Map of northeast China showing the distributions of chloroplast haplotypes (A~Y). (b): Median-joining network for 25 chloroplast SSR haplotypes and 124 individuals in Chinese wild Ussurian pears (Table 3). The haplotypes are indicated by circles and the colors correspond with the color of the haplotypes in Fig 1 (a), and small red circles show median vectors. The size of each pie chart is proportional to the frequency of corresponding haplotype. (1)-1 including 2 haplotypes was detected mostly in the north east of Heilongjiang, and (1)-2, (1)-3, and (1)-4 contained the haplotypes found in Jilin, Inner Mongolia, and Mudanzhang City, Heilongjiang, respectively. Most of the median vectors were included in (2).
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pone.0133686.g001: (a): Map of northeast China showing the distributions of chloroplast haplotypes (A~Y). (b): Median-joining network for 25 chloroplast SSR haplotypes and 124 individuals in Chinese wild Ussurian pears (Table 3). The haplotypes are indicated by circles and the colors correspond with the color of the haplotypes in Fig 1 (a), and small red circles show median vectors. The size of each pie chart is proportional to the frequency of corresponding haplotype. (1)-1 including 2 haplotypes was detected mostly in the north east of Heilongjiang, and (1)-2, (1)-3, and (1)-4 contained the haplotypes found in Jilin, Inner Mongolia, and Mudanzhang City, Heilongjiang, respectively. Most of the median vectors were included in (2).

Mentions: Almost no investigations of wild Ussurian pears in China have been conducted until now, so their habitats were unclear. After explorations based on the old documentary records and interviews, 13 populations of Ussurian pears growing wildly were recognized. A total of 153 wild Ussurian pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.) individuals were collected from their main habitat, Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Jilin in China. We collected 13 populations comprised as follows: 91 individuals from 6 populations in Inner Mongolia, 70 individuals from 6 populations in Heilongjiang, and 12 individuals from a single population in Jilin (Fig 1). All of the samples were used for nSSRs analysis, and 145 individuals (86 individuals from 6 populations in Inner Mongolia, 49 individuals from 6 populations in Heilongjiang, and 10 individuals from a single population in Jilin) were used for cpSSRs analysis. Sampled locations were recorded as global positioning system (GPS) coordinates (Table 1). Classification of Pyrus based on those of Yu (1979) and Ohwi (1965). To avoid multiple sampling of closely related individuals such as half sib or full sib., a minimum distance of 10 m between individuals was maintained.


Population Structure of and Conservation Strategies for Wild Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. in China.

Wuyun T, Amo H, Xu J, Ma T, Uematsu C, Katayama H - PLoS ONE (2015)

(a): Map of northeast China showing the distributions of chloroplast haplotypes (A~Y). (b): Median-joining network for 25 chloroplast SSR haplotypes and 124 individuals in Chinese wild Ussurian pears (Table 3). The haplotypes are indicated by circles and the colors correspond with the color of the haplotypes in Fig 1 (a), and small red circles show median vectors. The size of each pie chart is proportional to the frequency of corresponding haplotype. (1)-1 including 2 haplotypes was detected mostly in the north east of Heilongjiang, and (1)-2, (1)-3, and (1)-4 contained the haplotypes found in Jilin, Inner Mongolia, and Mudanzhang City, Heilongjiang, respectively. Most of the median vectors were included in (2).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4529180&req=5

pone.0133686.g001: (a): Map of northeast China showing the distributions of chloroplast haplotypes (A~Y). (b): Median-joining network for 25 chloroplast SSR haplotypes and 124 individuals in Chinese wild Ussurian pears (Table 3). The haplotypes are indicated by circles and the colors correspond with the color of the haplotypes in Fig 1 (a), and small red circles show median vectors. The size of each pie chart is proportional to the frequency of corresponding haplotype. (1)-1 including 2 haplotypes was detected mostly in the north east of Heilongjiang, and (1)-2, (1)-3, and (1)-4 contained the haplotypes found in Jilin, Inner Mongolia, and Mudanzhang City, Heilongjiang, respectively. Most of the median vectors were included in (2).
Mentions: Almost no investigations of wild Ussurian pears in China have been conducted until now, so their habitats were unclear. After explorations based on the old documentary records and interviews, 13 populations of Ussurian pears growing wildly were recognized. A total of 153 wild Ussurian pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.) individuals were collected from their main habitat, Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Jilin in China. We collected 13 populations comprised as follows: 91 individuals from 6 populations in Inner Mongolia, 70 individuals from 6 populations in Heilongjiang, and 12 individuals from a single population in Jilin (Fig 1). All of the samples were used for nSSRs analysis, and 145 individuals (86 individuals from 6 populations in Inner Mongolia, 49 individuals from 6 populations in Heilongjiang, and 10 individuals from a single population in Jilin) were used for cpSSRs analysis. Sampled locations were recorded as global positioning system (GPS) coordinates (Table 1). Classification of Pyrus based on those of Yu (1979) and Ohwi (1965). To avoid multiple sampling of closely related individuals such as half sib or full sib., a minimum distance of 10 m between individuals was maintained.

Bottom Line: These values are relatively high when compared to those of other tree species.We determined 4 conservation units based on the clustering by nSSRs and cpSSRs, and geographic factor.This information is helpful in deciding the conservation strategies for wild Ussurian pear in China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Paulownia Research and Development Center of China, Non-timber Forestry Research and Development of CAF, Weiwu Road, Zhengzhou City 450003, China.

ABSTRACT
Pyrus ussriensis Maxim. is native to the northern part of China, but whose habitats are currently being destroyed by environmental changes and human deforestation. An investigation of population structure and genetic diversity of wild Ussurian pear is a priority in order to acquire fundamental knowledge for conservation. A total of 153 individuals of wild Ussurian pear from the main habitats, Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia in China, possessed low genetic diversity as a result of habitat fragmentation. The genetic diversity of the populations in Inner Mongolia and north east of Heilongjiang was especially low and there was the possibility of inbreeding. Wild Ussurian pears were divided into 5 groups based on the Bayesian clustering method using 20 nuclear SSRs (nSSRs) and 5 groups by haplotype distributions using 16 chloroplast SSRs (cpSSRs), and the populations in Inner Mongolia and north east of Heilongjiang represented unique genotypes. AMOVA indicated there was a 20.05% variation in nSSRs and a 44.40% variation in cpSSRs among populations. These values are relatively high when compared to those of other tree species. Haplotype E, positioned in the center of the cpSSR analysis network and showed the largest number of connections with other haplotypes, represented the most important haplotype. Inner Mongolia and the north east of Heilongjiang are two areas that need urgent conservation because of their genetic vulnerability and peculiarity. We determined 4 conservation units based on the clustering by nSSRs and cpSSRs, and geographic factor. This information is helpful in deciding the conservation strategies for wild Ussurian pear in China.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus