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Self-Knowledge Dim-Out: Stress Impairs Metacognitive Accuracy.

Reyes G, Silva JR, Jaramillo K, Rehbein L, Sackur J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Here, we investigate the effects of stress on metacognition, which is the ability to monitor and control one's own cognition.As predicted, we found that high biological reactivity to stress correlates with lower sensitivity in metacognition.In sum, participants under stress know less when they know and when they do not know.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique (ENS, CNRS, EHESS), PSL Research University, Paris, France; Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France; Escuela de Psicología, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Modulation of frontal lobes activity is believed to be an important pathway trough which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response impacts cognitive and emotional functioning. Here, we investigate the effects of stress on metacognition, which is the ability to monitor and control one's own cognition. As the frontal lobes have been shown to play a critical role in metacognition, we predicted that under activation of the HPA axis, participants should be less accurate in the assessment of their own performances in a perceptual decision task, irrespective of the effect of stress on the first order perceptual decision itself. To test this prediction, we constituted three groups of high, medium and low stress responders based on cortisol concentration in saliva in response to a standardized psycho-social stress challenge (the Trier Social Stress Test). We then assessed the accuracy of participants' confidence judgments in a visual discrimination task. As predicted, we found that high biological reactivity to stress correlates with lower sensitivity in metacognition. In sum, participants under stress know less when they know and when they do not know.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) TSST protocol (session 1). (B) Detection and Metacognitive tasks (session 2).
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pone.0132320.g001: (A) TSST protocol (session 1). (B) Detection and Metacognitive tasks (session 2).

Mentions: We applied the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) [19], with seven interspersed saliva samples to assay cortisol concentration (Fig 1A). The TSST asks that participants perform a ten minutes, videotaped oral presentation and do mental arithmetic in front of a non-supportive panel of three judges. The first saliva sample was taken after a ten minutes rest, immediately followed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) [20]. Participants then performed the main presentation of the TSST, after which the second saliva sample was taken and participants filled out a second STAI with only the state subscale. Six more saliva samples were taken during a post-exposure rest phase to control normal decrease in the stress reactivity curves. Heart rate (HR) was monitored throughout. Here as well as in the second session, we also recorded electrodermal activity, but technical failures precluded our using the data. Electrodes were located on the medial side of both ankles and the distal anterior aspect of the right forearm (BIOPAC MP150, Goleta, CA). Saliva samples were sent to the Molecular Biology Laboratory of the Universidad de La Frontera, for quantitative determination of cortisol concentration. Salivary concentrations of cortisol were obtained using an enzyme immunoassay commercial kit following the manufacturer’s instructions (DRG Salivary Control ELISA Kit, DRG Instruments GmbH, Germany). Concentrations were obtained by interpolating from a standard curve plotted using the software GraphPad Prism version 5.0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego CA, USA).


Self-Knowledge Dim-Out: Stress Impairs Metacognitive Accuracy.

Reyes G, Silva JR, Jaramillo K, Rehbein L, Sackur J - PLoS ONE (2015)

(A) TSST protocol (session 1). (B) Detection and Metacognitive tasks (session 2).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4529147&req=5

pone.0132320.g001: (A) TSST protocol (session 1). (B) Detection and Metacognitive tasks (session 2).
Mentions: We applied the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) [19], with seven interspersed saliva samples to assay cortisol concentration (Fig 1A). The TSST asks that participants perform a ten minutes, videotaped oral presentation and do mental arithmetic in front of a non-supportive panel of three judges. The first saliva sample was taken after a ten minutes rest, immediately followed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) [20]. Participants then performed the main presentation of the TSST, after which the second saliva sample was taken and participants filled out a second STAI with only the state subscale. Six more saliva samples were taken during a post-exposure rest phase to control normal decrease in the stress reactivity curves. Heart rate (HR) was monitored throughout. Here as well as in the second session, we also recorded electrodermal activity, but technical failures precluded our using the data. Electrodes were located on the medial side of both ankles and the distal anterior aspect of the right forearm (BIOPAC MP150, Goleta, CA). Saliva samples were sent to the Molecular Biology Laboratory of the Universidad de La Frontera, for quantitative determination of cortisol concentration. Salivary concentrations of cortisol were obtained using an enzyme immunoassay commercial kit following the manufacturer’s instructions (DRG Salivary Control ELISA Kit, DRG Instruments GmbH, Germany). Concentrations were obtained by interpolating from a standard curve plotted using the software GraphPad Prism version 5.0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego CA, USA).

Bottom Line: Here, we investigate the effects of stress on metacognition, which is the ability to monitor and control one's own cognition.As predicted, we found that high biological reactivity to stress correlates with lower sensitivity in metacognition.In sum, participants under stress know less when they know and when they do not know.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique (ENS, CNRS, EHESS), PSL Research University, Paris, France; Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France; Escuela de Psicología, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Modulation of frontal lobes activity is believed to be an important pathway trough which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response impacts cognitive and emotional functioning. Here, we investigate the effects of stress on metacognition, which is the ability to monitor and control one's own cognition. As the frontal lobes have been shown to play a critical role in metacognition, we predicted that under activation of the HPA axis, participants should be less accurate in the assessment of their own performances in a perceptual decision task, irrespective of the effect of stress on the first order perceptual decision itself. To test this prediction, we constituted three groups of high, medium and low stress responders based on cortisol concentration in saliva in response to a standardized psycho-social stress challenge (the Trier Social Stress Test). We then assessed the accuracy of participants' confidence judgments in a visual discrimination task. As predicted, we found that high biological reactivity to stress correlates with lower sensitivity in metacognition. In sum, participants under stress know less when they know and when they do not know.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus