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Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

Salmon M, Salmon C, Bissinger A, Muller MM, Gebreyesus A, Geremew H, Wendel SK, Wendell S, Azaza A, Salumu M, Benfield N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group.A final prototype was then selected.Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Health Network, University of Toronto, Department of Emergency Medicine, Toronto, Canada.

ABSTRACT
This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of gel availability on African Continent.Map of African Continent with geographic distribution of cassava (light blue) and bulla (dark blue). Sorghum is available in the pale blue states.
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pone.0134332.g002: Map of gel availability on African Continent.Map of African Continent with geographic distribution of cassava (light blue) and bulla (dark blue). Sorghum is available in the pale blue states.

Mentions: Six different prototypes of cassava-root were developed by heating varying concentrations of ground cassava root, salt and water, brought to a low boil while mixing. Samples were allowed to cool for 2 hours before testing. End-Users chose the mixture of 1 part salt, 8 parts cassava root flour and 32 parts water for the preferred mixture. Stir the mixture while bring to boil. Place pot aside and when cool fill bottles by spooning mixture. Ethiopian End-Users chose bulla, a flower derived from Enset (banana like plant) via a similar process. (Fig 2)


Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

Salmon M, Salmon C, Bissinger A, Muller MM, Gebreyesus A, Geremew H, Wendel SK, Wendell S, Azaza A, Salumu M, Benfield N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Map of gel availability on African Continent.Map of African Continent with geographic distribution of cassava (light blue) and bulla (dark blue). Sorghum is available in the pale blue states.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4529075&req=5

pone.0134332.g002: Map of gel availability on African Continent.Map of African Continent with geographic distribution of cassava (light blue) and bulla (dark blue). Sorghum is available in the pale blue states.
Mentions: Six different prototypes of cassava-root were developed by heating varying concentrations of ground cassava root, salt and water, brought to a low boil while mixing. Samples were allowed to cool for 2 hours before testing. End-Users chose the mixture of 1 part salt, 8 parts cassava root flour and 32 parts water for the preferred mixture. Stir the mixture while bring to boil. Place pot aside and when cool fill bottles by spooning mixture. Ethiopian End-Users chose bulla, a flower derived from Enset (banana like plant) via a similar process. (Fig 2)

Bottom Line: Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group.A final prototype was then selected.Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Health Network, University of Toronto, Department of Emergency Medicine, Toronto, Canada.

ABSTRACT
This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus