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Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

Salmon M, Salmon C, Bissinger A, Muller MM, Gebreyesus A, Geremew H, Wendel SK, Wendell S, Azaza A, Salumu M, Benfield N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group.A final prototype was then selected.Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Health Network, University of Toronto, Department of Emergency Medicine, Toronto, Canada.

ABSTRACT
This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Markets in Goma, Addis Ababa, and Bameko.(A) Vendors are interviewed in Addis Ababa Ethiopia at Merkato in Lideta sub city and Addis Ketema by research colleague Alegnta Gebreyesus, MD in Amharik. (B) Vendors are interviewed at the Virunga Market in Goma, DRC by research assistant, Rene Zaidi, in Kiswahili. Commercial ultrasound gel is demonstrated and this vendor suggests banana flour, sorgum or cassava root flour. (C) Vendors are interviewed at Bameko Mali by research assistant, Bouba, in Bambera. The vendor reviews photos of obstetric ultrasounds and suggests banana flour, sorgum or cassava root flour.
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pone.0134332.g001: Markets in Goma, Addis Ababa, and Bameko.(A) Vendors are interviewed in Addis Ababa Ethiopia at Merkato in Lideta sub city and Addis Ketema by research colleague Alegnta Gebreyesus, MD in Amharik. (B) Vendors are interviewed at the Virunga Market in Goma, DRC by research assistant, Rene Zaidi, in Kiswahili. Commercial ultrasound gel is demonstrated and this vendor suggests banana flour, sorgum or cassava root flour. (C) Vendors are interviewed at Bameko Mali by research assistant, Bouba, in Bambera. The vendor reviews photos of obstetric ultrasounds and suggests banana flour, sorgum or cassava root flour.

Mentions: Results of the online survey from Background Knowledge Experts were then queried for ready commercial gel alternatives that met those metrics and potential materials selected. Local Experts were then identified based on these results and interviewed by research assistants to query for local suggestions that were similar to the materials selected. 72 vendors in Kindu & Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo, Addis Ababa Ethiopia and Bameko Mali were then interviewed in groups. The women were shown photos of physicians performing ultrasonography and given samples of commercial gel and the design challenge was discussed. (Fig 1) Participation was determined if a vendor commented either to the research assistant or other vendors to discuss the topic. Interviews were done at the market place with suggestions collected in written format, and the interaction in still photo and video format.


Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

Salmon M, Salmon C, Bissinger A, Muller MM, Gebreyesus A, Geremew H, Wendel SK, Wendell S, Azaza A, Salumu M, Benfield N - PLoS ONE (2015)

Markets in Goma, Addis Ababa, and Bameko.(A) Vendors are interviewed in Addis Ababa Ethiopia at Merkato in Lideta sub city and Addis Ketema by research colleague Alegnta Gebreyesus, MD in Amharik. (B) Vendors are interviewed at the Virunga Market in Goma, DRC by research assistant, Rene Zaidi, in Kiswahili. Commercial ultrasound gel is demonstrated and this vendor suggests banana flour, sorgum or cassava root flour. (C) Vendors are interviewed at Bameko Mali by research assistant, Bouba, in Bambera. The vendor reviews photos of obstetric ultrasounds and suggests banana flour, sorgum or cassava root flour.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4529075&req=5

pone.0134332.g001: Markets in Goma, Addis Ababa, and Bameko.(A) Vendors are interviewed in Addis Ababa Ethiopia at Merkato in Lideta sub city and Addis Ketema by research colleague Alegnta Gebreyesus, MD in Amharik. (B) Vendors are interviewed at the Virunga Market in Goma, DRC by research assistant, Rene Zaidi, in Kiswahili. Commercial ultrasound gel is demonstrated and this vendor suggests banana flour, sorgum or cassava root flour. (C) Vendors are interviewed at Bameko Mali by research assistant, Bouba, in Bambera. The vendor reviews photos of obstetric ultrasounds and suggests banana flour, sorgum or cassava root flour.
Mentions: Results of the online survey from Background Knowledge Experts were then queried for ready commercial gel alternatives that met those metrics and potential materials selected. Local Experts were then identified based on these results and interviewed by research assistants to query for local suggestions that were similar to the materials selected. 72 vendors in Kindu & Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo, Addis Ababa Ethiopia and Bameko Mali were then interviewed in groups. The women were shown photos of physicians performing ultrasonography and given samples of commercial gel and the design challenge was discussed. (Fig 1) Participation was determined if a vendor commented either to the research assistant or other vendors to discuss the topic. Interviews were done at the market place with suggestions collected in written format, and the interaction in still photo and video format.

Bottom Line: Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group.A final prototype was then selected.Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Health Network, University of Toronto, Department of Emergency Medicine, Toronto, Canada.

ABSTRACT
This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus