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Magnetic separation-based blood purification: a promising new approach for the removal of disease-causing compounds?

Herrmann IK, Schlegel AA, Graf R, Stark WJ, Beck-Schimmer B - J Nanobiotechnology (2015)

Bottom Line: High molecular weight compounds, bacteria and cells can be eliminated from blood within minutes, hence offering novel treatment strategies for the management of intoxications and blood stream infections.However, risks associated with incomplete particle separation and the biological consequences of particles entering circulation remain largely unclear.This article discusses the promising future of magnetic separation-based purification while keeping important safety considerations in mind.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland. ingekherrmann@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies report promising results regarding extracorporeal magnetic separation-based blood purification for the rapid and selective removal of disease-causing compounds from whole blood. High molecular weight compounds, bacteria and cells can be eliminated from blood within minutes, hence offering novel treatment strategies for the management of intoxications and blood stream infections. However, risks associated with incomplete particle separation and the biological consequences of particles entering circulation remain largely unclear. This article discusses the promising future of magnetic separation-based purification while keeping important safety considerations in mind.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Principle of magnetic separation-based blood purification: elimination of pathogens.
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Fig1: Principle of magnetic separation-based blood purification: elimination of pathogens.

Mentions: The direct removal of disease-causing compounds is an inherently attractive treatment modality for a range of pathological conditions, including intoxications and blood stream infections [1]. While low molecular weight compounds (potassium, urea, etc.) are routinely removed from blood circulation by membrane-based processes, such as hemodialysis and hemofiltration [2], high molecular weight targets are only accessible by sorption-based processes e.g. hemoadsorption and hemoperfusion, where blood is pushed at high flow rates through adsorbent cartridges. In spite of promising initial findings, the practical use of hemoperfusion is still controversial and concerns have been raised due to potential side effects such as unspecific protein adsorption, loss of blood cells (e.g. platelets) and possible activation of coagulation and inflammation pathways during operation. Compared to porous membranes, the use of free-floating nano-sized particles exhibits significant benefits in terms of surface accessibility (no pore diffusion, shorter contact times), but this comes at a price: the pathogen-loaded particles need to be removed from the blood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that magnetic (nano-)particles can be employed to bind pathogenic substances on their surface, followed by a re-collection by magnetic separation. In magnetic separation-based blood purification, capturing agents attached to tiny magnetic nanoparticles are injected into an extracorporeal blood circuit (Fig. 1). They then form a complex consisting of the target compounds attached to the magnetic particle which can be rapidly removed from blood by magnetic separation. The performance of such blood cleansing processes is essentially determined by the target-ligand binding (binding site accessibility, specificity, contact time), the throughput and, most critically, the efficiency of the magnetic separation process.Fig. 1


Magnetic separation-based blood purification: a promising new approach for the removal of disease-causing compounds?

Herrmann IK, Schlegel AA, Graf R, Stark WJ, Beck-Schimmer B - J Nanobiotechnology (2015)

Principle of magnetic separation-based blood purification: elimination of pathogens.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4528690&req=5

Fig1: Principle of magnetic separation-based blood purification: elimination of pathogens.
Mentions: The direct removal of disease-causing compounds is an inherently attractive treatment modality for a range of pathological conditions, including intoxications and blood stream infections [1]. While low molecular weight compounds (potassium, urea, etc.) are routinely removed from blood circulation by membrane-based processes, such as hemodialysis and hemofiltration [2], high molecular weight targets are only accessible by sorption-based processes e.g. hemoadsorption and hemoperfusion, where blood is pushed at high flow rates through adsorbent cartridges. In spite of promising initial findings, the practical use of hemoperfusion is still controversial and concerns have been raised due to potential side effects such as unspecific protein adsorption, loss of blood cells (e.g. platelets) and possible activation of coagulation and inflammation pathways during operation. Compared to porous membranes, the use of free-floating nano-sized particles exhibits significant benefits in terms of surface accessibility (no pore diffusion, shorter contact times), but this comes at a price: the pathogen-loaded particles need to be removed from the blood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that magnetic (nano-)particles can be employed to bind pathogenic substances on their surface, followed by a re-collection by magnetic separation. In magnetic separation-based blood purification, capturing agents attached to tiny magnetic nanoparticles are injected into an extracorporeal blood circuit (Fig. 1). They then form a complex consisting of the target compounds attached to the magnetic particle which can be rapidly removed from blood by magnetic separation. The performance of such blood cleansing processes is essentially determined by the target-ligand binding (binding site accessibility, specificity, contact time), the throughput and, most critically, the efficiency of the magnetic separation process.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: High molecular weight compounds, bacteria and cells can be eliminated from blood within minutes, hence offering novel treatment strategies for the management of intoxications and blood stream infections.However, risks associated with incomplete particle separation and the biological consequences of particles entering circulation remain largely unclear.This article discusses the promising future of magnetic separation-based purification while keeping important safety considerations in mind.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland. ingekherrmann@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies report promising results regarding extracorporeal magnetic separation-based blood purification for the rapid and selective removal of disease-causing compounds from whole blood. High molecular weight compounds, bacteria and cells can be eliminated from blood within minutes, hence offering novel treatment strategies for the management of intoxications and blood stream infections. However, risks associated with incomplete particle separation and the biological consequences of particles entering circulation remain largely unclear. This article discusses the promising future of magnetic separation-based purification while keeping important safety considerations in mind.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus