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Determination of growth stages and metabolic profiles in Brachypodium distachyon for comparison of developmental context with Triticeae crops.

Onda Y, Hashimoto K, Yoshida T, Sakurai T, Sawada Y, Hirai MY, Toyooka K, Mochida K, Shinozaki K - Proc. Biol. Sci. (2015)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, we compared metabolite accumulation patterns across different growth stages and across different stress conditions using a widely targeted metabolome analysis.Metabolic profiling determined commonalities and specificities in chemical properties that were dependent on organisms, growth stages and/or stress conditions.Most metabolites accumulated equivalently in B. distachyon and wheat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cellulose Production Research Team, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Kanagawa, Japan Kihara Institute for Biological Research, Yokohama City University, Kanagawa, Japan.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flower structure and endosperm development. (a) Spikelet. (b) Floret. (c) Dehiscent anther and pollen grains. (d) Pollen grains attached to the stigma. (e) SEM image of the pollen surface structure. (f–j) Endosperm development towards BBCH71 (i) and BBCH73 (j). Scale bars: (a) 5 mm; (b) 1 mm; (c) 500 µm; (d) 200 µm; (e) 10 µm; (f–j) 1 mm.
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RSPB20150964F2: Flower structure and endosperm development. (a) Spikelet. (b) Floret. (c) Dehiscent anther and pollen grains. (d) Pollen grains attached to the stigma. (e) SEM image of the pollen surface structure. (f–j) Endosperm development towards BBCH71 (i) and BBCH73 (j). Scale bars: (a) 5 mm; (b) 1 mm; (c) 500 µm; (d) 200 µm; (e) 10 µm; (f–j) 1 mm.

Mentions: The growth stages of flowering were effectively defined by the codes of the BBCH scale (figure 2). A spikelet of B. distachyon constitutes two glumes and several florets. The floret comprises two bracts (a lemma on the outside and a palea on the inside), which enclose a double-plumed stigma and only two anthers (figure 2a,b). Generally, grass species (including the genus Brachypodium, except B. distachyon) contain three anthers in a floret [24]; this is one of the most notable morphological differences in florets between B. distachyon and the cereal crops in Poaceae. At the BBCH69 stage, the anther dehisced and shed a number of pollen grains (figure 2c). Some of the pollen grains attached to the stigma and fertilization proceeded (figure 2d). The spherical pollen grain had a pebbly texture and an aperture on the pollen wall (figure 2e). After fertilization, the endosperm of self-compatible B. distachyon [25] gradually developed along the growth stages towards BBCH73 (figure 2f–j). At the BBCH71 stage, although the floret was almost completely filled with endosperm (figure 2i), the endosperm was still thinner and softer (electronic supplementary material, figure S3A) than in the later stages (electronic supplementary material, figure S3B–H). The endosperm remarkably expanded until BBCH75 (electronic supplementary material, figure S3B,C). At BBCH77, the endosperm contained more solids in the milk (electronic supplementary material, figure S3D). At BBCH83, dough development had started (electronic supplementary material, figure S3E). Grain drying and filling gradually proceeded (electronic supplementary material, figure S3F,G,H).Figure 2.


Determination of growth stages and metabolic profiles in Brachypodium distachyon for comparison of developmental context with Triticeae crops.

Onda Y, Hashimoto K, Yoshida T, Sakurai T, Sawada Y, Hirai MY, Toyooka K, Mochida K, Shinozaki K - Proc. Biol. Sci. (2015)

Flower structure and endosperm development. (a) Spikelet. (b) Floret. (c) Dehiscent anther and pollen grains. (d) Pollen grains attached to the stigma. (e) SEM image of the pollen surface structure. (f–j) Endosperm development towards BBCH71 (i) and BBCH73 (j). Scale bars: (a) 5 mm; (b) 1 mm; (c) 500 µm; (d) 200 µm; (e) 10 µm; (f–j) 1 mm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4528556&req=5

RSPB20150964F2: Flower structure and endosperm development. (a) Spikelet. (b) Floret. (c) Dehiscent anther and pollen grains. (d) Pollen grains attached to the stigma. (e) SEM image of the pollen surface structure. (f–j) Endosperm development towards BBCH71 (i) and BBCH73 (j). Scale bars: (a) 5 mm; (b) 1 mm; (c) 500 µm; (d) 200 µm; (e) 10 µm; (f–j) 1 mm.
Mentions: The growth stages of flowering were effectively defined by the codes of the BBCH scale (figure 2). A spikelet of B. distachyon constitutes two glumes and several florets. The floret comprises two bracts (a lemma on the outside and a palea on the inside), which enclose a double-plumed stigma and only two anthers (figure 2a,b). Generally, grass species (including the genus Brachypodium, except B. distachyon) contain three anthers in a floret [24]; this is one of the most notable morphological differences in florets between B. distachyon and the cereal crops in Poaceae. At the BBCH69 stage, the anther dehisced and shed a number of pollen grains (figure 2c). Some of the pollen grains attached to the stigma and fertilization proceeded (figure 2d). The spherical pollen grain had a pebbly texture and an aperture on the pollen wall (figure 2e). After fertilization, the endosperm of self-compatible B. distachyon [25] gradually developed along the growth stages towards BBCH73 (figure 2f–j). At the BBCH71 stage, although the floret was almost completely filled with endosperm (figure 2i), the endosperm was still thinner and softer (electronic supplementary material, figure S3A) than in the later stages (electronic supplementary material, figure S3B–H). The endosperm remarkably expanded until BBCH75 (electronic supplementary material, figure S3B,C). At BBCH77, the endosperm contained more solids in the milk (electronic supplementary material, figure S3D). At BBCH83, dough development had started (electronic supplementary material, figure S3E). Grain drying and filling gradually proceeded (electronic supplementary material, figure S3F,G,H).Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Furthermore, we compared metabolite accumulation patterns across different growth stages and across different stress conditions using a widely targeted metabolome analysis.Metabolic profiling determined commonalities and specificities in chemical properties that were dependent on organisms, growth stages and/or stress conditions.Most metabolites accumulated equivalently in B. distachyon and wheat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cellulose Production Research Team, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Kanagawa, Japan Kihara Institute for Biological Research, Yokohama City University, Kanagawa, Japan.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus