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Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study.

Yang J, Summanen PH, Henning SM, Hsu M, Lam H, Huang J, Tseng CH, Dowd SE, Finegold SM, Heber D, Li Z - Front Physiol (2015)

Bottom Line: We identified 40 Pre-DM associated bacterial taxa.XOS significantly decreased or reversed the increase in abundance of Howardella, Enterorhabdus, and Slackia observed in healthy or Pre-DM subjects.In Pre-DM, XOS showed a tendency to reduce OGTT 2-h insulin levels (P = 0.13), but had no effect on body composition, HOMA-IR, serum glucose, triglyceride, satiety hormones, and TNFα.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been suggested that gut microbiota is altered in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Objective: This study was to evaluate the effect of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on the gut microbiota in both healthy and prediabetic (Pre-DM) subjects, as well as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Pre-DM.

Subjects/methods: Pre-DM (n = 13) or healthy (n = 16) subjects were randomized to receive 2 g/day XOS or placebo for 8-weeks. In Pre-DM subjects, body composition and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done at baseline and week 8. Stool from Pre-DM and healthy subjects at baseline and week 8 was analyzed for gut microbiota characterization using Illumina MiSeq sequencing.

Results: We identified 40 Pre-DM associated bacterial taxa. Among them, the abundance of the genera Enterorhabdus, Howardella, and Slackia was higher in Pre-DM. XOS significantly decreased or reversed the increase in abundance of Howardella, Enterorhabdus, and Slackia observed in healthy or Pre-DM subjects. Abundance of the species Blautia hydrogenotrophica was lower in pre-DM subjects, while XOS increased its abundance. In Pre-DM, XOS showed a tendency to reduce OGTT 2-h insulin levels (P = 0.13), but had no effect on body composition, HOMA-IR, serum glucose, triglyceride, satiety hormones, and TNFα.

Conclusion: This is the first clinical observation of modifications of the gut microbiota by XOS in both healthy and Pre-DM subjects in a pilot study. Prebiotic XOS may be beneficial in reversing changes in the gut microbiota during the development of diabetes.

Clinical trial registration: NCT01944904 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944904).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of gut microbiota composition between healthy (n = 16) and Pre-DM (n = 13) subjects. (A) Pie charts depict mean abundance (% of total) of the indicated phyla. (B) Bar graph of genera shows significant differences in abundance between healthy and Pre-DM subjects. Values are presented as mean ± standard error (SE) *P ≤ 0.05.
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Figure 1: Comparison of gut microbiota composition between healthy (n = 16) and Pre-DM (n = 13) subjects. (A) Pie charts depict mean abundance (% of total) of the indicated phyla. (B) Bar graph of genera shows significant differences in abundance between healthy and Pre-DM subjects. Values are presented as mean ± standard error (SE) *P ≤ 0.05.

Mentions: Miseq sequencing was used to compare the gut microbial composition of baseline samples from 16 healthy and 13 Pre-DM subjects. The abundance (percentage of total sequences) of 1 phylum, 1 class, 3 families, 13 genera, and 22 species, was significantly different between healthy and Pre-DM (Supplementary Table 1). Composition of phyla in healthy and Pre-DM groups is displayed in Figure 1A. The abundance of infectious and T2DM related phylum Synergistetes (Baumgartner et al., 2012; Qin et al., 2012) was significantly higher in Pre-DM compared with healthy subjects (P≤0.05) (Figure 1A). In addition, 13 genera responded significantly in Pre-DM (P≤0.05) (Figure 1B). The abundances of Allisonella, Cloacibacillus, Enterorhabdus, Howardella, Megamonas, and Slackia were significantly higher, while Adlercreutzia, Anaerococcus, Ethanoligenens, Gordonibacter, Lactococcus, Parasutterella, and Tissierella were greatly reduced in Pre-DM compared with healthy subjects (Figure 1B).


Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study.

Yang J, Summanen PH, Henning SM, Hsu M, Lam H, Huang J, Tseng CH, Dowd SE, Finegold SM, Heber D, Li Z - Front Physiol (2015)

Comparison of gut microbiota composition between healthy (n = 16) and Pre-DM (n = 13) subjects. (A) Pie charts depict mean abundance (% of total) of the indicated phyla. (B) Bar graph of genera shows significant differences in abundance between healthy and Pre-DM subjects. Values are presented as mean ± standard error (SE) *P ≤ 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4528259&req=5

Figure 1: Comparison of gut microbiota composition between healthy (n = 16) and Pre-DM (n = 13) subjects. (A) Pie charts depict mean abundance (% of total) of the indicated phyla. (B) Bar graph of genera shows significant differences in abundance between healthy and Pre-DM subjects. Values are presented as mean ± standard error (SE) *P ≤ 0.05.
Mentions: Miseq sequencing was used to compare the gut microbial composition of baseline samples from 16 healthy and 13 Pre-DM subjects. The abundance (percentage of total sequences) of 1 phylum, 1 class, 3 families, 13 genera, and 22 species, was significantly different between healthy and Pre-DM (Supplementary Table 1). Composition of phyla in healthy and Pre-DM groups is displayed in Figure 1A. The abundance of infectious and T2DM related phylum Synergistetes (Baumgartner et al., 2012; Qin et al., 2012) was significantly higher in Pre-DM compared with healthy subjects (P≤0.05) (Figure 1A). In addition, 13 genera responded significantly in Pre-DM (P≤0.05) (Figure 1B). The abundances of Allisonella, Cloacibacillus, Enterorhabdus, Howardella, Megamonas, and Slackia were significantly higher, while Adlercreutzia, Anaerococcus, Ethanoligenens, Gordonibacter, Lactococcus, Parasutterella, and Tissierella were greatly reduced in Pre-DM compared with healthy subjects (Figure 1B).

Bottom Line: We identified 40 Pre-DM associated bacterial taxa.XOS significantly decreased or reversed the increase in abundance of Howardella, Enterorhabdus, and Slackia observed in healthy or Pre-DM subjects.In Pre-DM, XOS showed a tendency to reduce OGTT 2-h insulin levels (P = 0.13), but had no effect on body composition, HOMA-IR, serum glucose, triglyceride, satiety hormones, and TNFα.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been suggested that gut microbiota is altered in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Objective: This study was to evaluate the effect of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on the gut microbiota in both healthy and prediabetic (Pre-DM) subjects, as well as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Pre-DM.

Subjects/methods: Pre-DM (n = 13) or healthy (n = 16) subjects were randomized to receive 2 g/day XOS or placebo for 8-weeks. In Pre-DM subjects, body composition and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done at baseline and week 8. Stool from Pre-DM and healthy subjects at baseline and week 8 was analyzed for gut microbiota characterization using Illumina MiSeq sequencing.

Results: We identified 40 Pre-DM associated bacterial taxa. Among them, the abundance of the genera Enterorhabdus, Howardella, and Slackia was higher in Pre-DM. XOS significantly decreased or reversed the increase in abundance of Howardella, Enterorhabdus, and Slackia observed in healthy or Pre-DM subjects. Abundance of the species Blautia hydrogenotrophica was lower in pre-DM subjects, while XOS increased its abundance. In Pre-DM, XOS showed a tendency to reduce OGTT 2-h insulin levels (P = 0.13), but had no effect on body composition, HOMA-IR, serum glucose, triglyceride, satiety hormones, and TNFα.

Conclusion: This is the first clinical observation of modifications of the gut microbiota by XOS in both healthy and Pre-DM subjects in a pilot study. Prebiotic XOS may be beneficial in reversing changes in the gut microbiota during the development of diabetes.

Clinical trial registration: NCT01944904 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944904).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus