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Developmental changes in analytic and holistic processes in face perception.

Joseph JE, DiBartolo MD, Bhatt RS - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Analytical processing was operationalized as the degree of parallel processing (or no change in RT as a function of greater similarity of features or spatial relations).In adults both 2(nd) order and featural information are incorporated into holistic representations, whereas older children only incorporate 2(nd) order information.Holistic processing was not evident in younger children.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC USA.

ABSTRACT
Although infants demonstrate sensitivity to some kinds of perceptual information in faces, many face capacities continue to develop throughout childhood. One debate is the degree to which children perceive faces analytically versus holistically and how these processes undergo developmental change. In the present study, school-aged children and adults performed a perceptual matching task with upright and inverted face and house pairs that varied in similarity of featural or 2(nd) order configural information. Holistic processing was operationalized as the degree of serial processing when discriminating faces and houses [i.e., increased reaction time (RT), as more features or spacing relations were shared between stimuli]. Analytical processing was operationalized as the degree of parallel processing (or no change in RT as a function of greater similarity of features or spatial relations). Adults showed the most evidence for holistic processing (most strongly for 2(nd) order faces) and holistic processing was weaker for inverted faces and houses. Younger children (6-8 years), in contrast, showed analytical processing across all experimental manipulations. Older children (9-11 years) showed an intermediate pattern with a trend toward holistic processing of 2(nd) order faces like adults, but parallel processing in other experimental conditions like younger children. These findings indicate that holistic face representations emerge around 10 years of age. In adults both 2(nd) order and featural information are incorporated into holistic representations, whereas older children only incorporate 2(nd) order information. Holistic processing was not evident in younger children. Hence, the development of holistic face representations relies on 2(nd) order processing initially then incorporates featural information by adulthood.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Face and house matching performance as a function of inversion in each age group and for each processing type. (A) Shows error rates (top) and logRT (bottom) for each age group in the featural condition. (B) Shows error rates (top) and logRT (bottom) for each age group in the 2nd order condition. Error bars are SE of the mean.
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Figure 3: Face and house matching performance as a function of inversion in each age group and for each processing type. (A) Shows error rates (top) and logRT (bottom) for each age group in the featural condition. (B) Shows error rates (top) and logRT (bottom) for each age group in the 2nd order condition. Error bars are SE of the mean.

Mentions: Repeated measures ANOVAs with logRT and errors as dependent variables and category (face, house) and orientation (inverted, upright) were conducted separately for adults, older children and younger children. The presence of a Category × Orientation interaction served as the main test of the hypothesis. As shown in Figure 3A adults and older children showed a trend for a greater inversion effect for featural faces than for featural houses with respect to errors, but younger children did not show this interaction. The Category × Orientation interaction was marginal in adults, F(1,17) = 3.2, p = 0.089, and older children, F(1,8) = 4.1, p = 0.076, but not significant for younger children for errors (p = 0.727). For logRT, the Category × Orientation interaction was not significant (p’s > 0.77).


Developmental changes in analytic and holistic processes in face perception.

Joseph JE, DiBartolo MD, Bhatt RS - Front Psychol (2015)

Face and house matching performance as a function of inversion in each age group and for each processing type. (A) Shows error rates (top) and logRT (bottom) for each age group in the featural condition. (B) Shows error rates (top) and logRT (bottom) for each age group in the 2nd order condition. Error bars are SE of the mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4528094&req=5

Figure 3: Face and house matching performance as a function of inversion in each age group and for each processing type. (A) Shows error rates (top) and logRT (bottom) for each age group in the featural condition. (B) Shows error rates (top) and logRT (bottom) for each age group in the 2nd order condition. Error bars are SE of the mean.
Mentions: Repeated measures ANOVAs with logRT and errors as dependent variables and category (face, house) and orientation (inverted, upright) were conducted separately for adults, older children and younger children. The presence of a Category × Orientation interaction served as the main test of the hypothesis. As shown in Figure 3A adults and older children showed a trend for a greater inversion effect for featural faces than for featural houses with respect to errors, but younger children did not show this interaction. The Category × Orientation interaction was marginal in adults, F(1,17) = 3.2, p = 0.089, and older children, F(1,8) = 4.1, p = 0.076, but not significant for younger children for errors (p = 0.727). For logRT, the Category × Orientation interaction was not significant (p’s > 0.77).

Bottom Line: Analytical processing was operationalized as the degree of parallel processing (or no change in RT as a function of greater similarity of features or spatial relations).In adults both 2(nd) order and featural information are incorporated into holistic representations, whereas older children only incorporate 2(nd) order information.Holistic processing was not evident in younger children.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC USA.

ABSTRACT
Although infants demonstrate sensitivity to some kinds of perceptual information in faces, many face capacities continue to develop throughout childhood. One debate is the degree to which children perceive faces analytically versus holistically and how these processes undergo developmental change. In the present study, school-aged children and adults performed a perceptual matching task with upright and inverted face and house pairs that varied in similarity of featural or 2(nd) order configural information. Holistic processing was operationalized as the degree of serial processing when discriminating faces and houses [i.e., increased reaction time (RT), as more features or spacing relations were shared between stimuli]. Analytical processing was operationalized as the degree of parallel processing (or no change in RT as a function of greater similarity of features or spatial relations). Adults showed the most evidence for holistic processing (most strongly for 2(nd) order faces) and holistic processing was weaker for inverted faces and houses. Younger children (6-8 years), in contrast, showed analytical processing across all experimental manipulations. Older children (9-11 years) showed an intermediate pattern with a trend toward holistic processing of 2(nd) order faces like adults, but parallel processing in other experimental conditions like younger children. These findings indicate that holistic face representations emerge around 10 years of age. In adults both 2(nd) order and featural information are incorporated into holistic representations, whereas older children only incorporate 2(nd) order information. Holistic processing was not evident in younger children. Hence, the development of holistic face representations relies on 2(nd) order processing initially then incorporates featural information by adulthood.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus