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Response actions influence the categorization of directions in auditory space.

Velten MC, Bläsing BE, Hermann T, Vorwerg C, Schack T - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Chi-square tests revealed an effect of response condition for directions within the left and right sides.We conclude that movement-based response actions influence the representation of auditory space, especially within the sides' regions.Moreover, the representation of auditory space favors the front and the back regions in terms of resolution, which is possibly related to the physiological characteristics of the human auditory system, as well as to the ecological requirements of action control in the different regions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurocognition and Action Research Group, Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Psychology and Sport Science, Bielefeld University Bielefeld, Germany ; Center of Excellence Cognitive Interaction Technology, Bielefeld University Bielefeld, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Spatial region concepts such as "front," "back," "left," and "right" reflect our typical interaction with space, and the corresponding surrounding regions have different statuses in memory. We examined the representation of spatial directions in the auditory space, specifically in how far natural response actions, such as orientation movements toward a sound source, would affect the categorization of egocentric auditory space. While standing in the middle of a circle with 16 loudspeakers, participants were presented acoustic stimuli coming from the loudspeakers in randomized order, and verbally described their directions by using the concept labels "front," "back," "left," "right," "front-right," "front-left," "back-right," and "back-left." Response actions varied in three blocked conditions: (1) facing front, (2) turning the head and upper body to face the stimulus, and (3) turning the head and upper body plus pointing with the hand and outstretched arm toward the stimulus. In addition to a protocol of the verbal utterances, motion capture and video recording generated a detailed corpus for subsequent analysis of the participants' behavior. Chi-square tests revealed an effect of response condition for directions within the left and right sides. We conclude that movement-based response actions influence the representation of auditory space, especially within the sides' regions. Moreover, the representation of auditory space favors the front and the back regions in terms of resolution, which is possibly related to the physiological characteristics of the human auditory system, as well as to the ecological requirements of action control in the different regions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Test room and measurement of the response actions. The numbers represent the positions of the loudspeakers (LSs) in relation to the participant, whose initial position was in the middle of the test room, facing LS 0. The clockwise following LS positions were placed equidistantly around the ring (22.5° distance between the middle of two subsequent LSs). The gray small circles represent the reflective markers on the participant’s shoulders, head and index finger. In this example, we illustrate a movement response to a stimulus coming from LS 1. The head turning response in degrees (αhead) refers to the angle formed by the projection of the vector formed by the markers at the frontal bone and above the occipital protuberance, in relation to LS 0; likewise, the arm pointing response (αarm) refers to the angle formed by the projection of the vector formed by the markers on the shoulder and index finger, also in relation to LS 0 (0°). In this case, αhead is 30° and αarm is 34°. Therefore, as the actual position of LS 1 is at 22.5°, the error values are -7.5° and -11.5° respectively for head turning and arm pointing.
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Figure 1: Test room and measurement of the response actions. The numbers represent the positions of the loudspeakers (LSs) in relation to the participant, whose initial position was in the middle of the test room, facing LS 0. The clockwise following LS positions were placed equidistantly around the ring (22.5° distance between the middle of two subsequent LSs). The gray small circles represent the reflective markers on the participant’s shoulders, head and index finger. In this example, we illustrate a movement response to a stimulus coming from LS 1. The head turning response in degrees (αhead) refers to the angle formed by the projection of the vector formed by the markers at the frontal bone and above the occipital protuberance, in relation to LS 0; likewise, the arm pointing response (αarm) refers to the angle formed by the projection of the vector formed by the markers on the shoulder and index finger, also in relation to LS 0 (0°). In this case, αhead is 30° and αarm is 34°. Therefore, as the actual position of LS 1 is at 22.5°, the error values are -7.5° and -11.5° respectively for head turning and arm pointing.

Mentions: Experiments were conducted in a room which consisted of a ring (2 m outer radius) hanging from the ceiling (2.0 m above ground), with 16 Genelec 8020 loudspeakers (LSs) attached to the ring and positioned at intervals of 22.5° pointing toward the center, where the listener’s head was located. The inner radius, i.e., the actual distance between the speaker surface and the center, was 1.68 m. For further reference, each LS direction is labeled with a number from 0 to 15 (Figure 1). Six ‘Bonita’ cameras equidistantly attached to the ring recorded participants’ three-dimensional movements in space at 50 Hz using an optical motion capture system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). For this recording, 16 reflective markers (14 mm in diameter) were placed on the participant’s head, arms and upper body [four markers around the head (front middle of frontal bone, about left inferior temporal line, about right middle of parietal bone, about 3 cm above the occipital protuberance), one on each shoulder (coracoid process), two on each elbow (medial and lateral epicondyles), two on each hand (styloid processes of Radius and Ulna), and one on the middle phalange of each index finger]. Additionally, a VHS camera (Sony) positioned exactly below LS 0, i.e., in front of the subject, recorded the experiments for documentation.


Response actions influence the categorization of directions in auditory space.

Velten MC, Bläsing BE, Hermann T, Vorwerg C, Schack T - Front Psychol (2015)

Test room and measurement of the response actions. The numbers represent the positions of the loudspeakers (LSs) in relation to the participant, whose initial position was in the middle of the test room, facing LS 0. The clockwise following LS positions were placed equidistantly around the ring (22.5° distance between the middle of two subsequent LSs). The gray small circles represent the reflective markers on the participant’s shoulders, head and index finger. In this example, we illustrate a movement response to a stimulus coming from LS 1. The head turning response in degrees (αhead) refers to the angle formed by the projection of the vector formed by the markers at the frontal bone and above the occipital protuberance, in relation to LS 0; likewise, the arm pointing response (αarm) refers to the angle formed by the projection of the vector formed by the markers on the shoulder and index finger, also in relation to LS 0 (0°). In this case, αhead is 30° and αarm is 34°. Therefore, as the actual position of LS 1 is at 22.5°, the error values are -7.5° and -11.5° respectively for head turning and arm pointing.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 1: Test room and measurement of the response actions. The numbers represent the positions of the loudspeakers (LSs) in relation to the participant, whose initial position was in the middle of the test room, facing LS 0. The clockwise following LS positions were placed equidistantly around the ring (22.5° distance between the middle of two subsequent LSs). The gray small circles represent the reflective markers on the participant’s shoulders, head and index finger. In this example, we illustrate a movement response to a stimulus coming from LS 1. The head turning response in degrees (αhead) refers to the angle formed by the projection of the vector formed by the markers at the frontal bone and above the occipital protuberance, in relation to LS 0; likewise, the arm pointing response (αarm) refers to the angle formed by the projection of the vector formed by the markers on the shoulder and index finger, also in relation to LS 0 (0°). In this case, αhead is 30° and αarm is 34°. Therefore, as the actual position of LS 1 is at 22.5°, the error values are -7.5° and -11.5° respectively for head turning and arm pointing.
Mentions: Experiments were conducted in a room which consisted of a ring (2 m outer radius) hanging from the ceiling (2.0 m above ground), with 16 Genelec 8020 loudspeakers (LSs) attached to the ring and positioned at intervals of 22.5° pointing toward the center, where the listener’s head was located. The inner radius, i.e., the actual distance between the speaker surface and the center, was 1.68 m. For further reference, each LS direction is labeled with a number from 0 to 15 (Figure 1). Six ‘Bonita’ cameras equidistantly attached to the ring recorded participants’ three-dimensional movements in space at 50 Hz using an optical motion capture system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). For this recording, 16 reflective markers (14 mm in diameter) were placed on the participant’s head, arms and upper body [four markers around the head (front middle of frontal bone, about left inferior temporal line, about right middle of parietal bone, about 3 cm above the occipital protuberance), one on each shoulder (coracoid process), two on each elbow (medial and lateral epicondyles), two on each hand (styloid processes of Radius and Ulna), and one on the middle phalange of each index finger]. Additionally, a VHS camera (Sony) positioned exactly below LS 0, i.e., in front of the subject, recorded the experiments for documentation.

Bottom Line: Chi-square tests revealed an effect of response condition for directions within the left and right sides.We conclude that movement-based response actions influence the representation of auditory space, especially within the sides' regions.Moreover, the representation of auditory space favors the front and the back regions in terms of resolution, which is possibly related to the physiological characteristics of the human auditory system, as well as to the ecological requirements of action control in the different regions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurocognition and Action Research Group, Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Psychology and Sport Science, Bielefeld University Bielefeld, Germany ; Center of Excellence Cognitive Interaction Technology, Bielefeld University Bielefeld, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Spatial region concepts such as "front," "back," "left," and "right" reflect our typical interaction with space, and the corresponding surrounding regions have different statuses in memory. We examined the representation of spatial directions in the auditory space, specifically in how far natural response actions, such as orientation movements toward a sound source, would affect the categorization of egocentric auditory space. While standing in the middle of a circle with 16 loudspeakers, participants were presented acoustic stimuli coming from the loudspeakers in randomized order, and verbally described their directions by using the concept labels "front," "back," "left," "right," "front-right," "front-left," "back-right," and "back-left." Response actions varied in three blocked conditions: (1) facing front, (2) turning the head and upper body to face the stimulus, and (3) turning the head and upper body plus pointing with the hand and outstretched arm toward the stimulus. In addition to a protocol of the verbal utterances, motion capture and video recording generated a detailed corpus for subsequent analysis of the participants' behavior. Chi-square tests revealed an effect of response condition for directions within the left and right sides. We conclude that movement-based response actions influence the representation of auditory space, especially within the sides' regions. Moreover, the representation of auditory space favors the front and the back regions in terms of resolution, which is possibly related to the physiological characteristics of the human auditory system, as well as to the ecological requirements of action control in the different regions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus