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Individual classification of ADHD children by right prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a go/no-go task as assessed by fNIRS.

Monden Y, Dan I, Nagashima M, Dan H, Uga M, Ikeda T, Tsuzuki D, Kyutoku Y, Gunji Y, Hirano D, Taniguchi T, Shimoizumi H, Watanabe E, Yamagata T - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Bottom Line: Previously, our fNIRS-based measurements successfully visualized the hypoactivation pattern in the right prefrontal cortex during a go/no-go task in ADHD children compared with typically developing control children at a group level.The ROI located on the border of inferior and middle frontal gyri yielded the most accurate discrimination.Furthermore, we adapted well-formed formulae for the constituent channels of the optimized ROI, leading to improved classification accuracy with an area under the curve value of 85% and with 90% sensitivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan.

ABSTRACT
While a growing body of neurocognitive research has explored the neural substrates associated with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), an objective biomarker for diagnosis has not been established. The advent of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which is a noninvasive and unrestrictive method of functional neuroimaging, raised the possibility of introducing functional neuroimaging diagnosis in young ADHD children. Previously, our fNIRS-based measurements successfully visualized the hypoactivation pattern in the right prefrontal cortex during a go/no-go task in ADHD children compared with typically developing control children at a group level. The current study aimed to explore a method of individual differentiation between ADHD and typically developing control children using multichannel fNIRS, emphasizing how spatial distribution and amplitude of hemodynamic response are associated with inhibition-related right prefrontal dysfunction. Thirty ADHD and thirty typically developing control children underwent a go/no-go task, and their cortical hemodynamics were assessed using fNIRS. We explored specific regions of interest (ROIs) and cut-off amplitudes for cortical activation to distinguish ADHD children from control children. The ROI located on the border of inferior and middle frontal gyri yielded the most accurate discrimination. Furthermore, we adapted well-formed formulae for the constituent channels of the optimized ROI, leading to improved classification accuracy with an area under the curve value of 85% and with 90% sensitivity. Thus, the right prefrontal hypoactivation assessed by fNIRS would serve as a potentially effective biomarker for classifying ADHD children at the individual level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Summary of experimental procedure. Brain activity was measured while ADHD and control subjects performed a go/no-go task.
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f0005: Summary of experimental procedure. Brain activity was measured while ADHD and control subjects performed a go/no-go task.

Mentions: We examined inhibition-related hemodynamic cortical activation while the subjects performed a go/no-go task. We examined pre-medicated ADHD and control subjects once without medication; all pre-medicated ADHD subjects underwent a washout period of more than 2 days for MPH or ATX. The procedure consisted of 6 block sets, containing alternating go (baseline) and go/no-go (target) blocks. Each block lasted 24 s and was preceded by instructions displayed for 3 s, giving an overall block-set time of 54 s and a total session time of about 6 min. In the go block, we presented subjects with a random sequence of two pictures and asked them to press a button for both pictures. In the go/no-go block, we presented subjects with a no-go picture 50% of the time, thus requiring subjects to respond to half the trials (go trials) and inhibit their response to the other half (no-go trials). Specifically, the instructions read in Japanese, “You should press the button as quickly as you can. Remember you want to be quick but also accurate, so do not go too fast.” Participants responded using the forefinger of their right hand. A go/no–go ratio of 50% was selected as it has been most often used in previous neuroimaging studies (Dillo et al., 2010; Herrmann et al., 2005; Liddle et al., 2001; Menon et al., 2001; Vaidya et al., 1998). We presented pictures sequentially for 800 ms with an inter-stimulus interval of 200 ms during go and go/no-go blocks. At the beginning of each block, we displayed instructions (e.g., “press for giraffe or lion” for go conditions and “do not press for tiger” for go/no-go conditions) for 3 s to inform the subject about the new block. Each subject performed a practice block before any measurements to ensure their understanding of the instructions (Fig. 1). The Experimental design was as previously described (Monden et al., 2012a; Monden et al., 2012c).


Individual classification of ADHD children by right prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a go/no-go task as assessed by fNIRS.

Monden Y, Dan I, Nagashima M, Dan H, Uga M, Ikeda T, Tsuzuki D, Kyutoku Y, Gunji Y, Hirano D, Taniguchi T, Shimoizumi H, Watanabe E, Yamagata T - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Summary of experimental procedure. Brain activity was measured while ADHD and control subjects performed a go/no-go task.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4528046&req=5

f0005: Summary of experimental procedure. Brain activity was measured while ADHD and control subjects performed a go/no-go task.
Mentions: We examined inhibition-related hemodynamic cortical activation while the subjects performed a go/no-go task. We examined pre-medicated ADHD and control subjects once without medication; all pre-medicated ADHD subjects underwent a washout period of more than 2 days for MPH or ATX. The procedure consisted of 6 block sets, containing alternating go (baseline) and go/no-go (target) blocks. Each block lasted 24 s and was preceded by instructions displayed for 3 s, giving an overall block-set time of 54 s and a total session time of about 6 min. In the go block, we presented subjects with a random sequence of two pictures and asked them to press a button for both pictures. In the go/no-go block, we presented subjects with a no-go picture 50% of the time, thus requiring subjects to respond to half the trials (go trials) and inhibit their response to the other half (no-go trials). Specifically, the instructions read in Japanese, “You should press the button as quickly as you can. Remember you want to be quick but also accurate, so do not go too fast.” Participants responded using the forefinger of their right hand. A go/no–go ratio of 50% was selected as it has been most often used in previous neuroimaging studies (Dillo et al., 2010; Herrmann et al., 2005; Liddle et al., 2001; Menon et al., 2001; Vaidya et al., 1998). We presented pictures sequentially for 800 ms with an inter-stimulus interval of 200 ms during go and go/no-go blocks. At the beginning of each block, we displayed instructions (e.g., “press for giraffe or lion” for go conditions and “do not press for tiger” for go/no-go conditions) for 3 s to inform the subject about the new block. Each subject performed a practice block before any measurements to ensure their understanding of the instructions (Fig. 1). The Experimental design was as previously described (Monden et al., 2012a; Monden et al., 2012c).

Bottom Line: Previously, our fNIRS-based measurements successfully visualized the hypoactivation pattern in the right prefrontal cortex during a go/no-go task in ADHD children compared with typically developing control children at a group level.The ROI located on the border of inferior and middle frontal gyri yielded the most accurate discrimination.Furthermore, we adapted well-formed formulae for the constituent channels of the optimized ROI, leading to improved classification accuracy with an area under the curve value of 85% and with 90% sensitivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan.

ABSTRACT
While a growing body of neurocognitive research has explored the neural substrates associated with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), an objective biomarker for diagnosis has not been established. The advent of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which is a noninvasive and unrestrictive method of functional neuroimaging, raised the possibility of introducing functional neuroimaging diagnosis in young ADHD children. Previously, our fNIRS-based measurements successfully visualized the hypoactivation pattern in the right prefrontal cortex during a go/no-go task in ADHD children compared with typically developing control children at a group level. The current study aimed to explore a method of individual differentiation between ADHD and typically developing control children using multichannel fNIRS, emphasizing how spatial distribution and amplitude of hemodynamic response are associated with inhibition-related right prefrontal dysfunction. Thirty ADHD and thirty typically developing control children underwent a go/no-go task, and their cortical hemodynamics were assessed using fNIRS. We explored specific regions of interest (ROIs) and cut-off amplitudes for cortical activation to distinguish ADHD children from control children. The ROI located on the border of inferior and middle frontal gyri yielded the most accurate discrimination. Furthermore, we adapted well-formed formulae for the constituent channels of the optimized ROI, leading to improved classification accuracy with an area under the curve value of 85% and with 90% sensitivity. Thus, the right prefrontal hypoactivation assessed by fNIRS would serve as a potentially effective biomarker for classifying ADHD children at the individual level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus