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SOX3 expression in the glial system of the developing and adult mouse cerebellum.

Cheah PS, Thomas PQ - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: SOX3-positive-cells were also found in the cerebellar mantle zone.Using glial markers in the early postnatal cerebellum, we found that virtually all of the SOX3-positive-cells were glial cells, although not all glial cells were SOX3-positive-cells.Our results indicate that the SOX3 protein is not expressed in cerebellar neurons and is instead expressed exclusively in the cerebellar glial system in a subset of mature glial cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia ; Neurobiology and Genetics Group, Genetics and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The cerebellum plays a vital role in equilibrium, motor control, and motor learning. The discrete neural and glial fates of cerebellar cells are determined by the molecular specifications (e.g. transcription factors) of neuroprogenitor cells that are influenced by local microenvironment signals. In this study, we evaluated the expression and function of Sox3, a single-exon gene located on the X chromosome, in the developing cerebellum.

Result: In the embryonic and early postnatal cerebellum, SOX3-positive-cells were detected in the ventricular zone, indicating that SOX3 expression is present in a subset of the cerebellar precursor cell population. In the young adult cerebellum, this expression was diminished in cerebellar cells, suggesting its limited role in cerebellar progenitors. SOX3-positive-cells were also found in the cerebellar mantle zone. Further immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that SOX3 was not expressed in Purkinje neurons. Using glial markers in the early postnatal cerebellum, we found that virtually all of the SOX3-positive-cells were glial cells, although not all glial cells were SOX3-positive-cells. We also determined the impact of transgenic expression using a loss-of-function (Sox3 ) model. We did not observe any developmental defects in the cerebellum of the Sox3 mice.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the SOX3 protein is not expressed in cerebellar neurons and is instead expressed exclusively in the cerebellar glial system in a subset of mature glial cells. Although the expression of Sox3 cerebellar glial development is lineage-restricted, it appears that the absence of Sox3 in the ventricular germinal epithelium and migrating glia does not affect cerebellar development, suggesting functional redundancy with other SoxB1 subgroup genes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The SOX3 protein is expressed in the ventricular zones of the developing cerebellum but is absent in the adult ventricular zone. Sagittal sections of the cerebellum at 14.5 dpc (A), 16.5 dpc (B), 18.5 dpc (C), postnatal-day 0 (P0) (D), and P21 (E). A–D SOX3 signals are observed in the ventricular zone (VZ) and in the cerebellar mantle zone. Aiii–Ax In 14.5 dpc cerebella, SOX3 (green) expression overlaps with the Ki67+ proliferating cells, SOX2+ neural progenitors (red), and GLAST+ radial glial cells (red) [yellow staining in (Avi) (Aiii), and (Ax) respectively]. E Neural stem cells in the thin ventricular zone lining the fourth ventricle (4th V) of the adult cerebellum expressed SOX2 expression (red) but not Sox3 (green). *Autofluorescence of red blood cells within choroid plexus (cp). Scale bar for Ai, Aii, C–E = 100 um; Aiii–Ax = 500 µm.
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Fig1: The SOX3 protein is expressed in the ventricular zones of the developing cerebellum but is absent in the adult ventricular zone. Sagittal sections of the cerebellum at 14.5 dpc (A), 16.5 dpc (B), 18.5 dpc (C), postnatal-day 0 (P0) (D), and P21 (E). A–D SOX3 signals are observed in the ventricular zone (VZ) and in the cerebellar mantle zone. Aiii–Ax In 14.5 dpc cerebella, SOX3 (green) expression overlaps with the Ki67+ proliferating cells, SOX2+ neural progenitors (red), and GLAST+ radial glial cells (red) [yellow staining in (Avi) (Aiii), and (Ax) respectively]. E Neural stem cells in the thin ventricular zone lining the fourth ventricle (4th V) of the adult cerebellum expressed SOX2 expression (red) but not Sox3 (green). *Autofluorescence of red blood cells within choroid plexus (cp). Scale bar for Ai, Aii, C–E = 100 um; Aiii–Ax = 500 µm.

Mentions: At 14.5 dpc, SOX3-expressing cells were present primarily in the VZ; some SOX3-positive cells were also present in the mantle zone of the cerebellum (Fig. 1A). At 16.5, 18.5 dpc, and P0, SOX3-positive cells were dispersed throughout the cerebellar mantle zone and also present in the VZ (Fig. 1B–D). In the P21 cerebellum, the cells that remained in contact with the ventricular region expressed SOX2 protein (adult neural stem cell marker) but did not express SOX3 (Fig. 1Eii). These data indicate that SOX3 is expressed in mitotic progenitors of VZ in the developing cerebellum until the early postnatal stage, suggesting its potential role in early developmental stages of the cerebellum. The data for the young adult cerebellum also demonstrated that SOX3 plays a limited role in adult neural stem cells.Fig. 1


SOX3 expression in the glial system of the developing and adult mouse cerebellum.

Cheah PS, Thomas PQ - Springerplus (2015)

The SOX3 protein is expressed in the ventricular zones of the developing cerebellum but is absent in the adult ventricular zone. Sagittal sections of the cerebellum at 14.5 dpc (A), 16.5 dpc (B), 18.5 dpc (C), postnatal-day 0 (P0) (D), and P21 (E). A–D SOX3 signals are observed in the ventricular zone (VZ) and in the cerebellar mantle zone. Aiii–Ax In 14.5 dpc cerebella, SOX3 (green) expression overlaps with the Ki67+ proliferating cells, SOX2+ neural progenitors (red), and GLAST+ radial glial cells (red) [yellow staining in (Avi) (Aiii), and (Ax) respectively]. E Neural stem cells in the thin ventricular zone lining the fourth ventricle (4th V) of the adult cerebellum expressed SOX2 expression (red) but not Sox3 (green). *Autofluorescence of red blood cells within choroid plexus (cp). Scale bar for Ai, Aii, C–E = 100 um; Aiii–Ax = 500 µm.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4527974&req=5

Fig1: The SOX3 protein is expressed in the ventricular zones of the developing cerebellum but is absent in the adult ventricular zone. Sagittal sections of the cerebellum at 14.5 dpc (A), 16.5 dpc (B), 18.5 dpc (C), postnatal-day 0 (P0) (D), and P21 (E). A–D SOX3 signals are observed in the ventricular zone (VZ) and in the cerebellar mantle zone. Aiii–Ax In 14.5 dpc cerebella, SOX3 (green) expression overlaps with the Ki67+ proliferating cells, SOX2+ neural progenitors (red), and GLAST+ radial glial cells (red) [yellow staining in (Avi) (Aiii), and (Ax) respectively]. E Neural stem cells in the thin ventricular zone lining the fourth ventricle (4th V) of the adult cerebellum expressed SOX2 expression (red) but not Sox3 (green). *Autofluorescence of red blood cells within choroid plexus (cp). Scale bar for Ai, Aii, C–E = 100 um; Aiii–Ax = 500 µm.
Mentions: At 14.5 dpc, SOX3-expressing cells were present primarily in the VZ; some SOX3-positive cells were also present in the mantle zone of the cerebellum (Fig. 1A). At 16.5, 18.5 dpc, and P0, SOX3-positive cells were dispersed throughout the cerebellar mantle zone and also present in the VZ (Fig. 1B–D). In the P21 cerebellum, the cells that remained in contact with the ventricular region expressed SOX2 protein (adult neural stem cell marker) but did not express SOX3 (Fig. 1Eii). These data indicate that SOX3 is expressed in mitotic progenitors of VZ in the developing cerebellum until the early postnatal stage, suggesting its potential role in early developmental stages of the cerebellum. The data for the young adult cerebellum also demonstrated that SOX3 plays a limited role in adult neural stem cells.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: SOX3-positive-cells were also found in the cerebellar mantle zone.Using glial markers in the early postnatal cerebellum, we found that virtually all of the SOX3-positive-cells were glial cells, although not all glial cells were SOX3-positive-cells.Our results indicate that the SOX3 protein is not expressed in cerebellar neurons and is instead expressed exclusively in the cerebellar glial system in a subset of mature glial cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia ; Neurobiology and Genetics Group, Genetics and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The cerebellum plays a vital role in equilibrium, motor control, and motor learning. The discrete neural and glial fates of cerebellar cells are determined by the molecular specifications (e.g. transcription factors) of neuroprogenitor cells that are influenced by local microenvironment signals. In this study, we evaluated the expression and function of Sox3, a single-exon gene located on the X chromosome, in the developing cerebellum.

Result: In the embryonic and early postnatal cerebellum, SOX3-positive-cells were detected in the ventricular zone, indicating that SOX3 expression is present in a subset of the cerebellar precursor cell population. In the young adult cerebellum, this expression was diminished in cerebellar cells, suggesting its limited role in cerebellar progenitors. SOX3-positive-cells were also found in the cerebellar mantle zone. Further immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that SOX3 was not expressed in Purkinje neurons. Using glial markers in the early postnatal cerebellum, we found that virtually all of the SOX3-positive-cells were glial cells, although not all glial cells were SOX3-positive-cells. We also determined the impact of transgenic expression using a loss-of-function (Sox3 ) model. We did not observe any developmental defects in the cerebellum of the Sox3 mice.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the SOX3 protein is not expressed in cerebellar neurons and is instead expressed exclusively in the cerebellar glial system in a subset of mature glial cells. Although the expression of Sox3 cerebellar glial development is lineage-restricted, it appears that the absence of Sox3 in the ventricular germinal epithelium and migrating glia does not affect cerebellar development, suggesting functional redundancy with other SoxB1 subgroup genes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus