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The variability and seasonality of the environmental reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis shed by wild European badgers.

King HC, Murphy A, James P, Travis E, Porter D, Hung YJ, Sawyer J, Cork J, Delahay RJ, Gaze W, Courtenay O, Wellington EM - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses.The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection.Here we identify potential infection hotspots in the badger population and quantify the heterogeneity in bacterial load; with infected badgers shedding between 1 × 10(3)- 4 × 10(5) M. bovis cells g(-1) of faeces, creating a substantial and seasonally variable environmental reservoir.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Warwick, School of Life Sciences, Gibbet Hill Campus, Coventry, CV4 7AL.

ABSTRACT
The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection. One likely route of transmission to cattle is through exposure to infected badger urine and faeces. The relative importance of the environment in transmission remains unknown, in part due to the lack of information on the distribution and magnitude of environmental reservoirs. Here we identify potential infection hotspots in the badger population and quantify the heterogeneity in bacterial load; with infected badgers shedding between 1 × 10(3)- 4 × 10(5) M. bovis cells g(-1) of faeces, creating a substantial and seasonally variable environmental reservoir. Our findings highlight the potential importance of monitoring environmental reservoirs of M. bovis which may constitute a component of disease spread that is currently overlooked and yet may be responsible for a proportion of transmission amongst badgers and onwards to cattle.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The percentage of badgers positive by any diagnostic tests compared to the percentage of positive faecal samples by qPCR per social group.
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f2: The percentage of badgers positive by any diagnostic tests compared to the percentage of positive faecal samples by qPCR per social group.

Mentions: During the study, 53.6% of trapped badgers were M. bovis positive by Stat-Pak, IFNγ or culture. By qPCR faecal samples from every social group examined were found to be positive (Fig. 2). Although the percentage of infected faecal samples varied considerably (Table 1, Table S3), the numbers of M. bovis genome equivalents per faecal sample also varied widely ranged from 1 × 103 to 4 × 105 per gram of faeces (Table 1).


The variability and seasonality of the environmental reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis shed by wild European badgers.

King HC, Murphy A, James P, Travis E, Porter D, Hung YJ, Sawyer J, Cork J, Delahay RJ, Gaze W, Courtenay O, Wellington EM - Sci Rep (2015)

The percentage of badgers positive by any diagnostic tests compared to the percentage of positive faecal samples by qPCR per social group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4527091&req=5

f2: The percentage of badgers positive by any diagnostic tests compared to the percentage of positive faecal samples by qPCR per social group.
Mentions: During the study, 53.6% of trapped badgers were M. bovis positive by Stat-Pak, IFNγ or culture. By qPCR faecal samples from every social group examined were found to be positive (Fig. 2). Although the percentage of infected faecal samples varied considerably (Table 1, Table S3), the numbers of M. bovis genome equivalents per faecal sample also varied widely ranged from 1 × 103 to 4 × 105 per gram of faeces (Table 1).

Bottom Line: The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses.The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection.Here we identify potential infection hotspots in the badger population and quantify the heterogeneity in bacterial load; with infected badgers shedding between 1 × 10(3)- 4 × 10(5) M. bovis cells g(-1) of faeces, creating a substantial and seasonally variable environmental reservoir.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Warwick, School of Life Sciences, Gibbet Hill Campus, Coventry, CV4 7AL.

ABSTRACT
The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection. One likely route of transmission to cattle is through exposure to infected badger urine and faeces. The relative importance of the environment in transmission remains unknown, in part due to the lack of information on the distribution and magnitude of environmental reservoirs. Here we identify potential infection hotspots in the badger population and quantify the heterogeneity in bacterial load; with infected badgers shedding between 1 × 10(3)- 4 × 10(5) M. bovis cells g(-1) of faeces, creating a substantial and seasonally variable environmental reservoir. Our findings highlight the potential importance of monitoring environmental reservoirs of M. bovis which may constitute a component of disease spread that is currently overlooked and yet may be responsible for a proportion of transmission amongst badgers and onwards to cattle.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus