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Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions.

Pusztahelyi T, Holb IJ, Pócsi I - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes.It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production.New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary.

ABSTRACT
Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Structures of some phytoalexins isolated from rice. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
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Figure 8: Structures of some phytoalexins isolated from rice. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).

Mentions: Plant antifungal metabolites are preformed inhibitors that constitutively produced in healthy plants (phytoanticipins), or they may be synthesized de novo in response to pathogen attack or various non-biological stress factors such as short-wavelength UV light, treatment with heavy metal ions (e.g., copper or mercury salts). The letter pathogen and environmental stress elicited compounds are called phytoalexins. These groups cannot be separated strictly as the same compound may be a preformed antifungal substance in one species and can be phytoalexin in another. For example, flavanone sakuranetin (Figure 8) was found to be a phytoanticipin in Ribes nigra (Atkinson and Blakeman, 1982) and in Hebe cupressoides (Perry and Foster, 1994) but was induced in the leaves of rice Oryza sativa (Kodama et al., 1992). These metabolites can be constitutively present in one organ and can be induced in another. Plant SMs usually accumulate in smaller quantities than the primary metabolites (e.g., Dewick, 2002); however, they can accumulate in particular tissues (e.g., Takanashi et al., 2012) at a higher concentration. This accumulation is regulated in a highly sophisticated manner in appropriate compartments because some plant SMs are even toxic to the plants themselves if they are mislocalized. In the compartmentation and translocation processes, both primary and secondary transporters are involved and many transporter genes, especially genes belonging to the multidrug and toxin extrusion type transporter family, have been identified as responsible for the membrane transport of SMs (Yazaki, 2006; Yazaki et al., 2008). High number of SMs are well characterized in the families Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Labiaceae (Wink, 2003) as well as in cereals (reviewed by Du Fall and Solomon, 2011). Phytoalexins in families Fabaceae and Rosaceae and in rice were reviewed by Grayer and Kokubun (2001); while, SMs in a range of crop plants from families Cruciferae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae (Pedras and Ahiahonu, 2005), Brassicaceae, Vitaceae, and Poaceae (reviewed by Ahuja et al., 2012) have also been described recently.


Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions.

Pusztahelyi T, Holb IJ, Pócsi I - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Structures of some phytoalexins isolated from rice. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4527079&req=5

Figure 8: Structures of some phytoalexins isolated from rice. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
Mentions: Plant antifungal metabolites are preformed inhibitors that constitutively produced in healthy plants (phytoanticipins), or they may be synthesized de novo in response to pathogen attack or various non-biological stress factors such as short-wavelength UV light, treatment with heavy metal ions (e.g., copper or mercury salts). The letter pathogen and environmental stress elicited compounds are called phytoalexins. These groups cannot be separated strictly as the same compound may be a preformed antifungal substance in one species and can be phytoalexin in another. For example, flavanone sakuranetin (Figure 8) was found to be a phytoanticipin in Ribes nigra (Atkinson and Blakeman, 1982) and in Hebe cupressoides (Perry and Foster, 1994) but was induced in the leaves of rice Oryza sativa (Kodama et al., 1992). These metabolites can be constitutively present in one organ and can be induced in another. Plant SMs usually accumulate in smaller quantities than the primary metabolites (e.g., Dewick, 2002); however, they can accumulate in particular tissues (e.g., Takanashi et al., 2012) at a higher concentration. This accumulation is regulated in a highly sophisticated manner in appropriate compartments because some plant SMs are even toxic to the plants themselves if they are mislocalized. In the compartmentation and translocation processes, both primary and secondary transporters are involved and many transporter genes, especially genes belonging to the multidrug and toxin extrusion type transporter family, have been identified as responsible for the membrane transport of SMs (Yazaki, 2006; Yazaki et al., 2008). High number of SMs are well characterized in the families Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Labiaceae (Wink, 2003) as well as in cereals (reviewed by Du Fall and Solomon, 2011). Phytoalexins in families Fabaceae and Rosaceae and in rice were reviewed by Grayer and Kokubun (2001); while, SMs in a range of crop plants from families Cruciferae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae (Pedras and Ahiahonu, 2005), Brassicaceae, Vitaceae, and Poaceae (reviewed by Ahuja et al., 2012) have also been described recently.

Bottom Line: The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes.It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production.New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary.

ABSTRACT
Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.