Limits...
Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions.

Pusztahelyi T, Holb IJ, Pócsi I - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes.It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production.New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary.

ABSTRACT
Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Antimicrobials from plants. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4527079&req=5

Figure 7: Antimicrobials from plants. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).

Mentions: Antimicrobial compounds such as the steroidal glycoalkaloid saponins, e.g., avenacin (Figure 7) and α-tomatine, restrict the growth of pathogens in the apoplast. Saponins have strong antifungal activity; the tomato saponin α-tomatine activates phosphotyrosine kinase and monomeric G-protein signaling pathways leading to Ca2+ elevation and ROS burst by binding to cell membranes followed by leakage of cell components in F. oxysporum cells (Ito et al., 2007). Different plant species produce different types of saponins, which are effective against a wide range of pathogenic fungi (Osbourn, 1996). Terpenes are composed of several isoprene units, and can be linear or cyclic, and even saturated or unsaturated. The best-known terpenes are odoriferous plant metabolites like camphor and turpentine. The industrial and medical significances of plant terpenes, e.g., those of taxol, are reviewed by Bohlmann and Keeling (2008). In maize, sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins, zealexins (Figure 7), were discovered through characterization of physiological responses to the toxinogenic pathogen F. graminearum. Importantly, zealexins exhibited antifungal activity against several phytopathogenic fungi (F. graminearum, A. flavus, Rhizopus microsporus) at physiologically relevant concentrations (Huffaker et al., 2011).


Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions.

Pusztahelyi T, Holb IJ, Pócsi I - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Antimicrobials from plants. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4527079&req=5

Figure 7: Antimicrobials from plants. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
Mentions: Antimicrobial compounds such as the steroidal glycoalkaloid saponins, e.g., avenacin (Figure 7) and α-tomatine, restrict the growth of pathogens in the apoplast. Saponins have strong antifungal activity; the tomato saponin α-tomatine activates phosphotyrosine kinase and monomeric G-protein signaling pathways leading to Ca2+ elevation and ROS burst by binding to cell membranes followed by leakage of cell components in F. oxysporum cells (Ito et al., 2007). Different plant species produce different types of saponins, which are effective against a wide range of pathogenic fungi (Osbourn, 1996). Terpenes are composed of several isoprene units, and can be linear or cyclic, and even saturated or unsaturated. The best-known terpenes are odoriferous plant metabolites like camphor and turpentine. The industrial and medical significances of plant terpenes, e.g., those of taxol, are reviewed by Bohlmann and Keeling (2008). In maize, sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins, zealexins (Figure 7), were discovered through characterization of physiological responses to the toxinogenic pathogen F. graminearum. Importantly, zealexins exhibited antifungal activity against several phytopathogenic fungi (F. graminearum, A. flavus, Rhizopus microsporus) at physiologically relevant concentrations (Huffaker et al., 2011).

Bottom Line: The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes.It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production.New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary.

ABSTRACT
Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.