Limits...
Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions.

Pusztahelyi T, Holb IJ, Pócsi I - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes.It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production.New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary.

ABSTRACT
Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Phytotoxic SM molecules from diverse fungi. Cornexistin from Paecilomyces variotii, fusicoccin from Fusicoccum (Phomopsis) amygdali, cerulenin Cephalosporium caerulens and botrydial from Botrytis cinerea. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4527079&req=5

Figure 5: Phytotoxic SM molecules from diverse fungi. Cornexistin from Paecilomyces variotii, fusicoccin from Fusicoccum (Phomopsis) amygdali, cerulenin Cephalosporium caerulens and botrydial from Botrytis cinerea. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).

Mentions: Several microbial phytotoxic compounds either inhibited an amino transferase or appeared to have such a mode of action, like cornexistin (Figure 5) from Paecilomyces variotii (Amagasa et al., 1994), which was patented as an herbicide; or tentoxin (Figure 2), a cyclic tetrapeptide from A. alternata, which indirectly inhibited the chloroplast development (Halloin et al., 1970). A series of structurally related fungal metabolites specifically inhibited ceramide synthase (sphinganine-N-acyltransferase) in plants, e.g., several analogs of AAL-toxin (A. alternata) (Figure 2) and FB1 (Figure 3) (Fusarium spp.) (e.g., Abbas et al., 1994). Fusicoccin (Figure 5) [Fusicoccum (Phomopsis) amygdali] irreversibly activated the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Paiardini et al., 2014). Alternariol (Figure 2) and monomethyl alternariol are natural phytotoxins, produced by Nimbya and Alternaria, inhibited the electron transport chain (Demuner et al., 2013). Cerulenin (Figure 5) (Cephalosporium cerulens) inhibited de novo fatty acid synthesis in plastids (Laskay et al., 1985). T-toxin (a family of C35 to C49 polyketides) from C. heterostrophus (Levings et al., 1995; Inderbitzin et al., 2010), which is a HST trichothecene phytotoxin, inhibited mitochondrial respiration by binding to an inner mitochondrial membrane protein in sensitive plants, resulting in pore formation, leakage of NAD+, and other ions, as well as subsequent mitochondrial swelling (reviewed by Rocha et al., 2005). Zinniol (Figure 2) (Alternaria species and one Phoma species) bound plant protoplasts and stimulated Ca2+ entry into cells (Thuleau et al., 1988). The availability of fungal genome sequences, the knowledge of the biosynthesis of these toxins and gene disruption techniques, allows the development of tools for discovering the role of more and more toxins in plant cell death and disease.


Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions.

Pusztahelyi T, Holb IJ, Pócsi I - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Phytotoxic SM molecules from diverse fungi. Cornexistin from Paecilomyces variotii, fusicoccin from Fusicoccum (Phomopsis) amygdali, cerulenin Cephalosporium caerulens and botrydial from Botrytis cinerea. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4527079&req=5

Figure 5: Phytotoxic SM molecules from diverse fungi. Cornexistin from Paecilomyces variotii, fusicoccin from Fusicoccum (Phomopsis) amygdali, cerulenin Cephalosporium caerulens and botrydial from Botrytis cinerea. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
Mentions: Several microbial phytotoxic compounds either inhibited an amino transferase or appeared to have such a mode of action, like cornexistin (Figure 5) from Paecilomyces variotii (Amagasa et al., 1994), which was patented as an herbicide; or tentoxin (Figure 2), a cyclic tetrapeptide from A. alternata, which indirectly inhibited the chloroplast development (Halloin et al., 1970). A series of structurally related fungal metabolites specifically inhibited ceramide synthase (sphinganine-N-acyltransferase) in plants, e.g., several analogs of AAL-toxin (A. alternata) (Figure 2) and FB1 (Figure 3) (Fusarium spp.) (e.g., Abbas et al., 1994). Fusicoccin (Figure 5) [Fusicoccum (Phomopsis) amygdali] irreversibly activated the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Paiardini et al., 2014). Alternariol (Figure 2) and monomethyl alternariol are natural phytotoxins, produced by Nimbya and Alternaria, inhibited the electron transport chain (Demuner et al., 2013). Cerulenin (Figure 5) (Cephalosporium cerulens) inhibited de novo fatty acid synthesis in plastids (Laskay et al., 1985). T-toxin (a family of C35 to C49 polyketides) from C. heterostrophus (Levings et al., 1995; Inderbitzin et al., 2010), which is a HST trichothecene phytotoxin, inhibited mitochondrial respiration by binding to an inner mitochondrial membrane protein in sensitive plants, resulting in pore formation, leakage of NAD+, and other ions, as well as subsequent mitochondrial swelling (reviewed by Rocha et al., 2005). Zinniol (Figure 2) (Alternaria species and one Phoma species) bound plant protoplasts and stimulated Ca2+ entry into cells (Thuleau et al., 1988). The availability of fungal genome sequences, the knowledge of the biosynthesis of these toxins and gene disruption techniques, allows the development of tools for discovering the role of more and more toxins in plant cell death and disease.

Bottom Line: The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes.It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production.New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary.

ABSTRACT
Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.