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Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions.

Pusztahelyi T, Holb IJ, Pócsi I - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes.It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production.New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary.

ABSTRACT
Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Chemical structures of some plant hormones. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
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Figure 1: Chemical structures of some plant hormones. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).

Mentions: Whole-genomic analysis have identified 12–15 PKS genes in F. graminearum (Kroken et al., 2003; Gaffoor and Trail, 2006; Gao et al., 2014; Sieber et al., 2014), where six have been linked to metabolites. The remaining PKSs have no assigned products yet even though they were expressed under tested conditions. In F. graminearum, the genes with known functions (13 SM genes) cover only a minor fraction of the 51 predicted SM genes: 15 PKSs, 19 NPSs and 17 TSs were identified (Sieber et al., 2014). Besides the classical SM genes (TS, NPS, and PKS) the 114 predicted genes encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes are also suitable candidates for searching SM gene clusters. Cytochrome P450s play an essential role in many known biosynthetic pathways of fungal compounds, for instance in the biosynthesis of trichothecene mycotoxins (Tokai et al., 2007) and gibberellins (Hedden et al., 2001) (Figure 1).


Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions.

Pusztahelyi T, Holb IJ, Pócsi I - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Chemical structures of some plant hormones. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4527079&req=5

Figure 1: Chemical structures of some plant hormones. Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database (accessed Jun. 6, 2015) (Bolton et al., 2008).
Mentions: Whole-genomic analysis have identified 12–15 PKS genes in F. graminearum (Kroken et al., 2003; Gaffoor and Trail, 2006; Gao et al., 2014; Sieber et al., 2014), where six have been linked to metabolites. The remaining PKSs have no assigned products yet even though they were expressed under tested conditions. In F. graminearum, the genes with known functions (13 SM genes) cover only a minor fraction of the 51 predicted SM genes: 15 PKSs, 19 NPSs and 17 TSs were identified (Sieber et al., 2014). Besides the classical SM genes (TS, NPS, and PKS) the 114 predicted genes encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes are also suitable candidates for searching SM gene clusters. Cytochrome P450s play an essential role in many known biosynthetic pathways of fungal compounds, for instance in the biosynthesis of trichothecene mycotoxins (Tokai et al., 2007) and gibberellins (Hedden et al., 2001) (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes.It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production.New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary.

ABSTRACT
Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.