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CLE19 expressed in the embryo regulates both cotyledon establishment and endosperm development in Arabidopsis.

Xu TT, Ren SC, Song XF, Liu CM - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: CLE19 is expressed in the epidermal layers of the cotyledon primordia, hypocotyl, and root cap in the embryo.Transgenic plants carrying an antagonistic CLE19 G6T construct expressed under the control of CLE19 regulatory elements exhibited a dominant seed abortion phenotype, with defective cotyledon establishment in embryos and delayed nuclear proliferation and cellularization in endosperms.We therefore propose that CLE19 may act as a mobile peptide co-ordinating embryo and endosperm development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanxincun 20, Fragrant Hill, Beijing 100093, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Endosperm-specific expression of CLE19G6T led to defective cotyledon establishment in embryos. (A) Seed abortions (indicated by arrowheads) observed in the pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plant, as compared with the wild type (WT). (B and C) Defected cotyledon establishment (indicated by arrowheads) in embryos from pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plants (C), as compared with the wild type (B) at the same stage (7 DAP). (D and E) Cytohistological examination of ovules from the wild type (D) and pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plants (E), showing establishment of the defective cotyledon (E, indicated by arrowheads). Note the cellularized endosperms (indicated by asterisks). c, cotyledon primordia. Scale bars: in A=1mm; in B–E=100 μm.
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Figure 8: Endosperm-specific expression of CLE19G6T led to defective cotyledon establishment in embryos. (A) Seed abortions (indicated by arrowheads) observed in the pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plant, as compared with the wild type (WT). (B and C) Defected cotyledon establishment (indicated by arrowheads) in embryos from pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plants (C), as compared with the wild type (B) at the same stage (7 DAP). (D and E) Cytohistological examination of ovules from the wild type (D) and pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plants (E), showing establishment of the defective cotyledon (E, indicated by arrowheads). Note the cellularized endosperms (indicated by asterisks). c, cotyledon primordia. Scale bars: in A=1mm; in B–E=100 μm.

Mentions: Next, a pALE1:CLE19G6T construct was made and transformed into Arabidopsis (Col-0). Among the 35 individual transgenic lines obtained, three (#1, #2, and #3) showed high ratios of seed abortion (indicated by arrowheads; Fig. 8A), with abortion frequencies of 33.3, 28.4, and 32.9%, respectively (Table 1). The phenotypes of these lines were similar to one another, and line #1 was selected for further analyses. Examination under a DIC microscope showed that embryo development in the aborted seeds was mostly arrested at the triangular stage (Fig. 8B, C), slightly earlier than observed in pCLE19:CLE19G6T:tCLE19 transgenic plants. These enlarged abnormal triangular embryos were often asymmetrical, most probably as a result of defective cotyledon development (indicated by arrowheads; Fig. 8C). Semi-thin sections in combination with PAS staining showed that endosperm cellularization occurred relatively normally in these aborted seeds (indicated by asterisks; Fig. 8D, E), while cotyledon development was severely arrested (indicated by arrowheads; Fig. 8C, E). The cell division pattern in the lower portion of the arrested embryos was normal, with a well-formed hypophysis and suspensor (Fig. 8E). It seems that expression of CLE19G6T under the control of the ALE1 promoter led to an earlier defect in cotyledon establishment in embryos than that observed in pCLE19:CLE19G6T:tCLE19 transgenic plants, and no evident defect in endosperm development. These data indicate that the CLE19G6T expressed in the endosperm interferes with embryo development in a non-cell-autonomous manner.


CLE19 expressed in the embryo regulates both cotyledon establishment and endosperm development in Arabidopsis.

Xu TT, Ren SC, Song XF, Liu CM - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Endosperm-specific expression of CLE19G6T led to defective cotyledon establishment in embryos. (A) Seed abortions (indicated by arrowheads) observed in the pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plant, as compared with the wild type (WT). (B and C) Defected cotyledon establishment (indicated by arrowheads) in embryos from pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plants (C), as compared with the wild type (B) at the same stage (7 DAP). (D and E) Cytohistological examination of ovules from the wild type (D) and pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plants (E), showing establishment of the defective cotyledon (E, indicated by arrowheads). Note the cellularized endosperms (indicated by asterisks). c, cotyledon primordia. Scale bars: in A=1mm; in B–E=100 μm.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 8: Endosperm-specific expression of CLE19G6T led to defective cotyledon establishment in embryos. (A) Seed abortions (indicated by arrowheads) observed in the pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plant, as compared with the wild type (WT). (B and C) Defected cotyledon establishment (indicated by arrowheads) in embryos from pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plants (C), as compared with the wild type (B) at the same stage (7 DAP). (D and E) Cytohistological examination of ovules from the wild type (D) and pALE1:CLE19G6T transgenic plants (E), showing establishment of the defective cotyledon (E, indicated by arrowheads). Note the cellularized endosperms (indicated by asterisks). c, cotyledon primordia. Scale bars: in A=1mm; in B–E=100 μm.
Mentions: Next, a pALE1:CLE19G6T construct was made and transformed into Arabidopsis (Col-0). Among the 35 individual transgenic lines obtained, three (#1, #2, and #3) showed high ratios of seed abortion (indicated by arrowheads; Fig. 8A), with abortion frequencies of 33.3, 28.4, and 32.9%, respectively (Table 1). The phenotypes of these lines were similar to one another, and line #1 was selected for further analyses. Examination under a DIC microscope showed that embryo development in the aborted seeds was mostly arrested at the triangular stage (Fig. 8B, C), slightly earlier than observed in pCLE19:CLE19G6T:tCLE19 transgenic plants. These enlarged abnormal triangular embryos were often asymmetrical, most probably as a result of defective cotyledon development (indicated by arrowheads; Fig. 8C). Semi-thin sections in combination with PAS staining showed that endosperm cellularization occurred relatively normally in these aborted seeds (indicated by asterisks; Fig. 8D, E), while cotyledon development was severely arrested (indicated by arrowheads; Fig. 8C, E). The cell division pattern in the lower portion of the arrested embryos was normal, with a well-formed hypophysis and suspensor (Fig. 8E). It seems that expression of CLE19G6T under the control of the ALE1 promoter led to an earlier defect in cotyledon establishment in embryos than that observed in pCLE19:CLE19G6T:tCLE19 transgenic plants, and no evident defect in endosperm development. These data indicate that the CLE19G6T expressed in the endosperm interferes with embryo development in a non-cell-autonomous manner.

Bottom Line: CLE19 is expressed in the epidermal layers of the cotyledon primordia, hypocotyl, and root cap in the embryo.Transgenic plants carrying an antagonistic CLE19 G6T construct expressed under the control of CLE19 regulatory elements exhibited a dominant seed abortion phenotype, with defective cotyledon establishment in embryos and delayed nuclear proliferation and cellularization in endosperms.We therefore propose that CLE19 may act as a mobile peptide co-ordinating embryo and endosperm development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanxincun 20, Fragrant Hill, Beijing 100093, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus