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The Arabidopsis Pep-PEPR system is induced by herbivore feeding and contributes to JA-mediated plant defence against herbivory.

Klauser D, Desurmont GA, Glauser G, Vallat A, Flury P, Boller T, Turlings TC, Bartels S - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: By using Arabidopsis GUS-reporter lines, it is now shown that the promoters of both Pep-receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2, as well as PROPEP3 are strongly activated upon herbivore attack.Moreover, pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants, which are insensitive to Peps, display a reduced resistance to feeding Spodoptera littoralis larvae and a reduced accumulation of jasmonic acid upon exposure to herbivore oral secretions.Taken together, these lines of evidence extend the role of the AtPep-PEPR system as a danger detection mechanism from microbial pathogens to herbivores and further underline its strong interaction with jasmonic acid signalling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zürich-Basel Plant Science Center, University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Botany, Hebelstrasse 1, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The detection of herbivore oral secretions induces JA biosynthesis in a PEPR-dependent manner. (A, C, D) Leaves of Col-0 and pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants were treated by pipetting 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis OS onto the upper leaf surface. After the time indicated, leaves were detached from the plant, flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and the levels of SA (A), JA (C), and JA-Ile (D) were determined by LC-MS. Bars show mean values of eight independent replicates with ±1 SE displayed as error bars. Letters indicate significant differences between the mean values (One-way ANOVA with α=0.05 and t test with P <0.05). (B) Leaf discs of Arabidopsis Col-0 and pepr1 pepr2 plants were either treated with 0.5% (v/v) OS or without any elicitor (control). Ethylene production was assessed in the headspace 4h after treatment using gas chromatography. Bars show mean values of eight independent replicates with ±1 SE displayed as error bars. Letters indicate significant differences between the mean values (one-way ANOVA with α=0.05 and t test with P <0.05).
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Figure 5: The detection of herbivore oral secretions induces JA biosynthesis in a PEPR-dependent manner. (A, C, D) Leaves of Col-0 and pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants were treated by pipetting 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis OS onto the upper leaf surface. After the time indicated, leaves were detached from the plant, flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and the levels of SA (A), JA (C), and JA-Ile (D) were determined by LC-MS. Bars show mean values of eight independent replicates with ±1 SE displayed as error bars. Letters indicate significant differences between the mean values (One-way ANOVA with α=0.05 and t test with P <0.05). (B) Leaf discs of Arabidopsis Col-0 and pepr1 pepr2 plants were either treated with 0.5% (v/v) OS or without any elicitor (control). Ethylene production was assessed in the headspace 4h after treatment using gas chromatography. Bars show mean values of eight independent replicates with ±1 SE displayed as error bars. Letters indicate significant differences between the mean values (one-way ANOVA with α=0.05 and t test with P <0.05).

Mentions: The induction of JA-related genes upon AtPep perception indicates a central role of JA to mediate the induction of herbivore resistance upon PEPR activation. However, the AtPep-PEPR system has been shown to interact positively with several hormonal pathways, enhancing defence responses against a variety of pathogens. These include the salicylic acid (SA) (Huffaker et al., 2006; Huffaker and Ryan, 2007; Ross et al., 2014), the ethylene (Huffaker and Ryan, 2007; Liu et al., 2013; Tintor et al., 2013; Ross et al., 2014), and the JA pathways (Huffaker et al., 2006; Huffaker and Ryan, 2007; Ross et al., 2014). To dissect this network further in the specific context of herbivory, the levels of the respective plant hormones were compared between Col-0 wild-type plants and the pepr1 pepr2 mutant plants before and after the application of herbivore OS (Fig. 5). Upon the perception of OS, the levels of SA did not increase at the time points assessed, with generally no difference being observed between wild-type and mutant plants (Fig. 5A). By contrast, the application of herbivore OS triggered the production of ethylene, with again no detectable difference between Col-0 wild-type and pepr1 pepr2 mutant plants (Fig. 5B). This, however, was different for the accumulation of JA and its active derivate JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile), where a greater increase of both JA and JA-Ile levels upon OS perception was observed in wild-type Col-0 plants compared with the pepr1 pepr2 mutant plants (Fig. 5C, D). This difference was most visible 4h after OS application and disappeared when JA levels flattened 12h after treatment, indicating an additional attenuation of the JA response in the mutant. Taken together, the lack of functional PEPR signalling during herbivore perception leads to reduced and/or slower production of JA which probably results in reduced herbivore resistance.


The Arabidopsis Pep-PEPR system is induced by herbivore feeding and contributes to JA-mediated plant defence against herbivory.

Klauser D, Desurmont GA, Glauser G, Vallat A, Flury P, Boller T, Turlings TC, Bartels S - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

The detection of herbivore oral secretions induces JA biosynthesis in a PEPR-dependent manner. (A, C, D) Leaves of Col-0 and pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants were treated by pipetting 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis OS onto the upper leaf surface. After the time indicated, leaves were detached from the plant, flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and the levels of SA (A), JA (C), and JA-Ile (D) were determined by LC-MS. Bars show mean values of eight independent replicates with ±1 SE displayed as error bars. Letters indicate significant differences between the mean values (One-way ANOVA with α=0.05 and t test with P <0.05). (B) Leaf discs of Arabidopsis Col-0 and pepr1 pepr2 plants were either treated with 0.5% (v/v) OS or without any elicitor (control). Ethylene production was assessed in the headspace 4h after treatment using gas chromatography. Bars show mean values of eight independent replicates with ±1 SE displayed as error bars. Letters indicate significant differences between the mean values (one-way ANOVA with α=0.05 and t test with P <0.05).
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Figure 5: The detection of herbivore oral secretions induces JA biosynthesis in a PEPR-dependent manner. (A, C, D) Leaves of Col-0 and pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants were treated by pipetting 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis OS onto the upper leaf surface. After the time indicated, leaves were detached from the plant, flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and the levels of SA (A), JA (C), and JA-Ile (D) were determined by LC-MS. Bars show mean values of eight independent replicates with ±1 SE displayed as error bars. Letters indicate significant differences between the mean values (One-way ANOVA with α=0.05 and t test with P <0.05). (B) Leaf discs of Arabidopsis Col-0 and pepr1 pepr2 plants were either treated with 0.5% (v/v) OS or without any elicitor (control). Ethylene production was assessed in the headspace 4h after treatment using gas chromatography. Bars show mean values of eight independent replicates with ±1 SE displayed as error bars. Letters indicate significant differences between the mean values (one-way ANOVA with α=0.05 and t test with P <0.05).
Mentions: The induction of JA-related genes upon AtPep perception indicates a central role of JA to mediate the induction of herbivore resistance upon PEPR activation. However, the AtPep-PEPR system has been shown to interact positively with several hormonal pathways, enhancing defence responses against a variety of pathogens. These include the salicylic acid (SA) (Huffaker et al., 2006; Huffaker and Ryan, 2007; Ross et al., 2014), the ethylene (Huffaker and Ryan, 2007; Liu et al., 2013; Tintor et al., 2013; Ross et al., 2014), and the JA pathways (Huffaker et al., 2006; Huffaker and Ryan, 2007; Ross et al., 2014). To dissect this network further in the specific context of herbivory, the levels of the respective plant hormones were compared between Col-0 wild-type plants and the pepr1 pepr2 mutant plants before and after the application of herbivore OS (Fig. 5). Upon the perception of OS, the levels of SA did not increase at the time points assessed, with generally no difference being observed between wild-type and mutant plants (Fig. 5A). By contrast, the application of herbivore OS triggered the production of ethylene, with again no detectable difference between Col-0 wild-type and pepr1 pepr2 mutant plants (Fig. 5B). This, however, was different for the accumulation of JA and its active derivate JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile), where a greater increase of both JA and JA-Ile levels upon OS perception was observed in wild-type Col-0 plants compared with the pepr1 pepr2 mutant plants (Fig. 5C, D). This difference was most visible 4h after OS application and disappeared when JA levels flattened 12h after treatment, indicating an additional attenuation of the JA response in the mutant. Taken together, the lack of functional PEPR signalling during herbivore perception leads to reduced and/or slower production of JA which probably results in reduced herbivore resistance.

Bottom Line: By using Arabidopsis GUS-reporter lines, it is now shown that the promoters of both Pep-receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2, as well as PROPEP3 are strongly activated upon herbivore attack.Moreover, pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants, which are insensitive to Peps, display a reduced resistance to feeding Spodoptera littoralis larvae and a reduced accumulation of jasmonic acid upon exposure to herbivore oral secretions.Taken together, these lines of evidence extend the role of the AtPep-PEPR system as a danger detection mechanism from microbial pathogens to herbivores and further underline its strong interaction with jasmonic acid signalling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zürich-Basel Plant Science Center, University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Botany, Hebelstrasse 1, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus