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The Arabidopsis Pep-PEPR system is induced by herbivore feeding and contributes to JA-mediated plant defence against herbivory.

Klauser D, Desurmont GA, Glauser G, Vallat A, Flury P, Boller T, Turlings TC, Bartels S - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: By using Arabidopsis GUS-reporter lines, it is now shown that the promoters of both Pep-receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2, as well as PROPEP3 are strongly activated upon herbivore attack.Moreover, pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants, which are insensitive to Peps, display a reduced resistance to feeding Spodoptera littoralis larvae and a reduced accumulation of jasmonic acid upon exposure to herbivore oral secretions.Taken together, these lines of evidence extend the role of the AtPep-PEPR system as a danger detection mechanism from microbial pathogens to herbivores and further underline its strong interaction with jasmonic acid signalling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zürich-Basel Plant Science Center, University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Botany, Hebelstrasse 1, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Spodoptera oral secretions are sufficient to activate both PEPR and PROPEP3 promoters. (A) 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis oral secretions were pipetted as two small droplets (red circles) onto the leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing pPEPR::GUS, pPROPEP1::GUS, and pPROPEP3::GUS reporter constructs. After 12h, leaves were detached from the plant, fixed, and stained. For each construct, two independent lines were assessed with similar results. (B) Leaves of Arabidopsis Col-0 wild-type plants were treated with 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis oral secretions as described above. After 0, 1, 2, and 16h they were detached from the plant and transcript levels of the respective genes were assessed by qRT PCR. Error bars show ±1 SE of three independent replicates, asterisks indicate significant differences in transcript accumulation compared with untreated plants (t test, P <0.05).
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Figure 1: Spodoptera oral secretions are sufficient to activate both PEPR and PROPEP3 promoters. (A) 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis oral secretions were pipetted as two small droplets (red circles) onto the leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing pPEPR::GUS, pPROPEP1::GUS, and pPROPEP3::GUS reporter constructs. After 12h, leaves were detached from the plant, fixed, and stained. For each construct, two independent lines were assessed with similar results. (B) Leaves of Arabidopsis Col-0 wild-type plants were treated with 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis oral secretions as described above. After 0, 1, 2, and 16h they were detached from the plant and transcript levels of the respective genes were assessed by qRT PCR. Error bars show ±1 SE of three independent replicates, asterisks indicate significant differences in transcript accumulation compared with untreated plants (t test, P <0.05).

Mentions: Transgenic Arabidopsis plant lines expressing a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene under the control of the promoter regions of either PROPEP1, PROPEP3, PEPR1, or PEPR2 were used as described by Bartels et al. (2013) and Spodoptera littoralis oral secretions (OS) were applied as two small droplets on to the upper leaf surface of unharmed leaves. In agreement with the up-regulation of ZmPROPEP3 upon OS detection (Huffaker et al., 2013) AtPROPEP3 is also induced locally at the site of OS application as detected by GUS staining (Fig. 1A) and via transcript quantification by real-time PCR (Fig. 1B). By contrast, AtPROPEP1 showed neither a detectable GUS-response (Fig. 1A) nor an increase in transcript abundance after OS application (Fig. 1B). The response of both PEPR promoters upon OS perception was also assessed. Similar to PROPEP3, both genes are induced upon OS application as shown by local GUS staining (Fig. 1A) as well as by real-time PCR (Fig. 1B). Notably, in contrast to the OS application procedure performed by Huffaker et al. which involved scratch-wounding, OS was just pipetted on to the leaf surface and so avoiding wounding and therefore any potential pleiotropic effects of the treatment procedure on our gene expression analysis (Huffaker et al., 2013).


The Arabidopsis Pep-PEPR system is induced by herbivore feeding and contributes to JA-mediated plant defence against herbivory.

Klauser D, Desurmont GA, Glauser G, Vallat A, Flury P, Boller T, Turlings TC, Bartels S - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Spodoptera oral secretions are sufficient to activate both PEPR and PROPEP3 promoters. (A) 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis oral secretions were pipetted as two small droplets (red circles) onto the leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing pPEPR::GUS, pPROPEP1::GUS, and pPROPEP3::GUS reporter constructs. After 12h, leaves were detached from the plant, fixed, and stained. For each construct, two independent lines were assessed with similar results. (B) Leaves of Arabidopsis Col-0 wild-type plants were treated with 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis oral secretions as described above. After 0, 1, 2, and 16h they were detached from the plant and transcript levels of the respective genes were assessed by qRT PCR. Error bars show ±1 SE of three independent replicates, asterisks indicate significant differences in transcript accumulation compared with untreated plants (t test, P <0.05).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526914&req=5

Figure 1: Spodoptera oral secretions are sufficient to activate both PEPR and PROPEP3 promoters. (A) 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis oral secretions were pipetted as two small droplets (red circles) onto the leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing pPEPR::GUS, pPROPEP1::GUS, and pPROPEP3::GUS reporter constructs. After 12h, leaves were detached from the plant, fixed, and stained. For each construct, two independent lines were assessed with similar results. (B) Leaves of Arabidopsis Col-0 wild-type plants were treated with 1 μl of Spodoptera littoralis oral secretions as described above. After 0, 1, 2, and 16h they were detached from the plant and transcript levels of the respective genes were assessed by qRT PCR. Error bars show ±1 SE of three independent replicates, asterisks indicate significant differences in transcript accumulation compared with untreated plants (t test, P <0.05).
Mentions: Transgenic Arabidopsis plant lines expressing a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene under the control of the promoter regions of either PROPEP1, PROPEP3, PEPR1, or PEPR2 were used as described by Bartels et al. (2013) and Spodoptera littoralis oral secretions (OS) were applied as two small droplets on to the upper leaf surface of unharmed leaves. In agreement with the up-regulation of ZmPROPEP3 upon OS detection (Huffaker et al., 2013) AtPROPEP3 is also induced locally at the site of OS application as detected by GUS staining (Fig. 1A) and via transcript quantification by real-time PCR (Fig. 1B). By contrast, AtPROPEP1 showed neither a detectable GUS-response (Fig. 1A) nor an increase in transcript abundance after OS application (Fig. 1B). The response of both PEPR promoters upon OS perception was also assessed. Similar to PROPEP3, both genes are induced upon OS application as shown by local GUS staining (Fig. 1A) as well as by real-time PCR (Fig. 1B). Notably, in contrast to the OS application procedure performed by Huffaker et al. which involved scratch-wounding, OS was just pipetted on to the leaf surface and so avoiding wounding and therefore any potential pleiotropic effects of the treatment procedure on our gene expression analysis (Huffaker et al., 2013).

Bottom Line: By using Arabidopsis GUS-reporter lines, it is now shown that the promoters of both Pep-receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2, as well as PROPEP3 are strongly activated upon herbivore attack.Moreover, pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants, which are insensitive to Peps, display a reduced resistance to feeding Spodoptera littoralis larvae and a reduced accumulation of jasmonic acid upon exposure to herbivore oral secretions.Taken together, these lines of evidence extend the role of the AtPep-PEPR system as a danger detection mechanism from microbial pathogens to herbivores and further underline its strong interaction with jasmonic acid signalling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zürich-Basel Plant Science Center, University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Botany, Hebelstrasse 1, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus