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The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic relationships of Odonata.1. Ground pattern of Odonata comprising all known odonate muscles. 2. Reduction of II (III)dvm7, II (III)tvm1, II (III)vlm4. 3. Reduction of II (III)tpm2, II (III)dvm2. 4. Reduction of Iscm4, II (III)dvm7, IIscm4, II (III)tvm1, IIIvlm4. 5. Reduction of IIscm2, IIscm7, II (III)dvm1. Drawings by S. Büsse.
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f7: Phylogenetic relationships of Odonata.1. Ground pattern of Odonata comprising all known odonate muscles. 2. Reduction of II (III)dvm7, II (III)tvm1, II (III)vlm4. 3. Reduction of II (III)tpm2, II (III)dvm2. 4. Reduction of Iscm4, II (III)dvm7, IIscm4, II (III)tvm1, IIIvlm4. 5. Reduction of IIscm2, IIscm7, II (III)dvm1. Drawings by S. Büsse.

Mentions: Assuming the commonly accepted monophyly of Ptergygota, it is most likely that its last common ancestor was morphologically similar to the extant species of Zygentoma. This also indicates that the number of muscles in the thorax was quite high in the ground pattern, since in Zygentoma and Archaeognatha3334353637 many more thoracic muscles are present than in any extant pterygote insect investigated. This interpretation is supported by our results. We found several muscles in the thorax of Odonata that are not present in Neoptera28 (cf. Fig. 7). Among Odonata, species of Epiophlebia are those with the highest number of thoracic muscles, indicating that this state is plesiomorphic and that the missing of muscles like Iscm4 & IIIscm4 in Zygoptera or IIscm4 in Anisoptera represent the apomorphic state.


The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Phylogenetic relationships of Odonata.1. Ground pattern of Odonata comprising all known odonate muscles. 2. Reduction of II (III)dvm7, II (III)tvm1, II (III)vlm4. 3. Reduction of II (III)tpm2, II (III)dvm2. 4. Reduction of Iscm4, II (III)dvm7, IIscm4, II (III)tvm1, IIIvlm4. 5. Reduction of IIscm2, IIscm7, II (III)dvm1. Drawings by S. Büsse.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526886&req=5

f7: Phylogenetic relationships of Odonata.1. Ground pattern of Odonata comprising all known odonate muscles. 2. Reduction of II (III)dvm7, II (III)tvm1, II (III)vlm4. 3. Reduction of II (III)tpm2, II (III)dvm2. 4. Reduction of Iscm4, II (III)dvm7, IIscm4, II (III)tvm1, IIIvlm4. 5. Reduction of IIscm2, IIscm7, II (III)dvm1. Drawings by S. Büsse.
Mentions: Assuming the commonly accepted monophyly of Ptergygota, it is most likely that its last common ancestor was morphologically similar to the extant species of Zygentoma. This also indicates that the number of muscles in the thorax was quite high in the ground pattern, since in Zygentoma and Archaeognatha3334353637 many more thoracic muscles are present than in any extant pterygote insect investigated. This interpretation is supported by our results. We found several muscles in the thorax of Odonata that are not present in Neoptera28 (cf. Fig. 7). Among Odonata, species of Epiophlebia are those with the highest number of thoracic muscles, indicating that this state is plesiomorphic and that the missing of muscles like Iscm4 & IIIscm4 in Zygoptera or IIscm4 in Anisoptera represent the apomorphic state.

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus