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The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transverso-ventral musculature and ventral nerve cord of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the ventral half of the thorax. AG - abdominal gaglion, Abd - Abdomen, TG - thoracal ganglion, tvm - transverso-ventralmuscle.
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f6: Transverso-ventral musculature and ventral nerve cord of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the ventral half of the thorax. AG - abdominal gaglion, Abd - Abdomen, TG - thoracal ganglion, tvm - transverso-ventralmuscle.

Mentions: The transverse ventral muscle (Fig. 6) II (III)tvm1* (-) was described by Maleouf27 as muscle (69). It is supposed to run transversely between intersegmental sterno-pleural processes. These processes, depicted by Maloeuf27 in an adult dragonfly, have been named preepisternal apodemes by Asahina1, who also found IItvm1 in the nymphs of E. superstes. However, both authors never described a transverse muscle by name. Maki30 indicates the presence of a transverse muscle but gives no description. This muscle is neither present in Zygoptera nor in Anisoptera1820.


The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Transverso-ventral musculature and ventral nerve cord of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the ventral half of the thorax. AG - abdominal gaglion, Abd - Abdomen, TG - thoracal ganglion, tvm - transverso-ventralmuscle.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526886&req=5

f6: Transverso-ventral musculature and ventral nerve cord of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the ventral half of the thorax. AG - abdominal gaglion, Abd - Abdomen, TG - thoracal ganglion, tvm - transverso-ventralmuscle.
Mentions: The transverse ventral muscle (Fig. 6) II (III)tvm1* (-) was described by Maleouf27 as muscle (69). It is supposed to run transversely between intersegmental sterno-pleural processes. These processes, depicted by Maloeuf27 in an adult dragonfly, have been named preepisternal apodemes by Asahina1, who also found IItvm1 in the nymphs of E. superstes. However, both authors never described a transverse muscle by name. Maki30 indicates the presence of a transverse muscle but gives no description. This muscle is neither present in Zygoptera nor in Anisoptera1820.

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus