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The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Tergo-pleural musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, tpm - tergo-pleural muscle.
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f5: Tergo-pleural musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, tpm - tergo-pleural muscle.

Mentions: The origins and the insertions of the tergo-pleural muscles (Fig. 5) IItpm3 (-) & IIItpm3 (-) lie inside the wing buds. They are the smallest muscles in the nymphs. Both were found in the nymph of the two species of Epiophlebia and in the nymphs of the Anisoptera20. They are not present in the nymphs of the Zygoptera and are not known for adults of Zygoptera18 or Epiprocta127. Probably, they only occur in juvenile Epiprocta.


The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Tergo-pleural musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, tpm - tergo-pleural muscle.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526886&req=5

f5: Tergo-pleural musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, tpm - tergo-pleural muscle.
Mentions: The origins and the insertions of the tergo-pleural muscles (Fig. 5) IItpm3 (-) & IIItpm3 (-) lie inside the wing buds. They are the smallest muscles in the nymphs. Both were found in the nymph of the two species of Epiophlebia and in the nymphs of the Anisoptera20. They are not present in the nymphs of the Zygoptera and are not known for adults of Zygoptera18 or Epiprocta127. Probably, they only occur in juvenile Epiprocta.

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus