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The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sterno-coxal and sterno-pleural musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, scm - sterno-coxal muscle, spm - sterno-pleural muscle.
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f4: Sterno-coxal and sterno-pleural musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, scm - sterno-coxal muscle, spm - sterno-pleural muscle.

Mentions: Among the sterno-coxal muscles (Fig. 4) Iscm4 (-), IIscm4 (-) & IIIscm4 (-) were not mentioned by Maloeuf27 or Asahina1. All three muscles were found in the nymphs of E. laidlawi and E. superstes. A possible explanation could be that all three muscles only exist in juvenile stages. At least IIIscm4 is also present in nymphs of Anisoptera20 and IIscm4 was found in Zygoptera nymphs. However, none of the three muscles have been found in adult Zygoptera18. The homology established for IIscm4 in Büsse & Hörnschemeyer20 holds for Iscm4 and IIIscm4 as well.


The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Sterno-coxal and sterno-pleural musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, scm - sterno-coxal muscle, spm - sterno-pleural muscle.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526886&req=5

f4: Sterno-coxal and sterno-pleural musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, scm - sterno-coxal muscle, spm - sterno-pleural muscle.
Mentions: Among the sterno-coxal muscles (Fig. 4) Iscm4 (-), IIscm4 (-) & IIIscm4 (-) were not mentioned by Maloeuf27 or Asahina1. All three muscles were found in the nymphs of E. laidlawi and E. superstes. A possible explanation could be that all three muscles only exist in juvenile stages. At least IIIscm4 is also present in nymphs of Anisoptera20 and IIscm4 was found in Zygoptera nymphs. However, none of the three muscles have been found in adult Zygoptera18. The homology established for IIscm4 in Büsse & Hörnschemeyer20 holds for Iscm4 and IIIscm4 as well.

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus