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The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pleuro-coxal musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, pcm - pleuro-coxal muscle.
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f3: Pleuro-coxal musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, pcm - pleuro-coxal muscle.

Mentions: The pleuro-coxal muscles (Fig. 3) II (III)pcm2 are among those that undergo the most extensive growth in the pterothoracic segments. They start out very slender in the early instars and grow to be among the largest muscles in the respective segment in the latest instars. In contrast to the description by Asahina1, we found clearly separated origins of II (III)pcm2 and II (III)pcm1.


The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Pleuro-coxal musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, pcm - pleuro-coxal muscle.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526886&req=5

f3: Pleuro-coxal musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, pcm - pleuro-coxal muscle.
Mentions: The pleuro-coxal muscles (Fig. 3) II (III)pcm2 are among those that undergo the most extensive growth in the pterothoracic segments. They start out very slender in the early instars and grow to be among the largest muscles in the respective segment in the latest instars. In contrast to the description by Asahina1, we found clearly separated origins of II (III)pcm2 and II (III)pcm1.

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus